1. b What best expresses the central thesis of Pico’s Oration on the Dignity of Man, an essential example of Italian Renaissance humanism?

a. power should be used with cunning and ruthlessness

b. humans are free to define their own nature as brutish or divine

c. humanity is saved by the grace of a loving God

d. human weakness is to be gently denounced with laughter

2. c Masaccio’s The Tribute Money, a scene of Jesus and his disciples painted in the 1420s, is notable for its pioneering use of what technique or subject?

a. a pagan subject drawn from an ancient Roman poem

b. the subtle colors of oil paint on wood

c. atmospheric or aerial perspective

d. careful rendering of the nude human anatomy

3. a How is the madrigal is best defined?

a. a popular song usually in four voices

b. the musical resting point that provides resolution

c. a form of improvisational theater originating in Italy

d. a part of the Christian mass as set to music

4. a Which of these works might be said to possess the quality of terribilità—a fearsome power often attributed to Pope Julius II?

a. Michelangelo’s Moses

b. the School of Athens

c. Donatello’s David

d. Bramante’s design for St. Peter’s

5. d Which might most reasonably be cited as a cause of the Reformation?

a. the discovery of territories in the New World

b. interest in reform of monasteries and convents

c. the poverty of Northern European peasants

d. Germans’ resentment against the Church’s corruption

6. c Which of these values is associated with the “Protestant ethic?”

a. generous patronage of art in the Church

b. pursuit of individual freedom and choice

c. self-sacrifice and the virtues of work

d. preservation of traditional Church rituals

7. b What Northern Renaissance artist was most actively engaged in the religious debates of the Reformation and the most influenced by Italian humanism?

a. Albrecht Dürer

b. Hans Holbein

c. Matthias Grünewald

d. Pieter Bruegel

8. c Which artist was the author of the Four Books of Architecture, an important influence on later architectural classicism?

a. Jacopo Tintoretto

b. Giorgione

c. Andrea Palladio

d. Giovanni da Palestrina

9. d Of the baroque qualities below, which is most clearly illustrated in Bernini’s Ecstasy of St. Teresa, centerpiece of the Cornaro Chapel?

a. neoclassical preference for order and balance

b. fascination with modern science and mathematics

c. interest in religious emotion and human psychology

d. dynamism created by conflicting lines

10. d Which of these statements best applies to Vivaldi’s Four Seasons?

a. composed for the court of Louis XIV of France

b. applies recent innovations in the form of the aria

c. marks the origin of baroque opera in Germany

d. a masterpiece of the baroque concerto grosso

11. b Jean-Baptiste Lully was a central figure in the development of what baroque art?

a. the self-portrait in oil

b. French opera and ballet

c. neoclassical architecture

d. the commedia dell’arte

12. a Which of these figures is associated with the heliocentric theory of the universe, an important advance in the Scientific Revolution?

a. Nicolaus Copernicus

b. John Locke

c. René Descartes

d. Antonio Vivaldi

13. a Whose most important work was a political treatise that helped justify the Glorious Revolution in England with his ideas of a balance between individual freedom and social order?

a. Thomas Hobbes

b. Molière

c. John Locke

d. Galileo

14. d Which two artists are most closely associated with the rococo style in art?

a. Jacques Louis David and Thomas Jefferson

b. Peter Paul Rubens and Nicolas Poussin

c. Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Mozart

d. J.-H. Fragonard and Antoine Watteau

15. b Which of these literary works is an example of the epistolary novel?

a. J.-J. Rousseau’s Social Contract

b. Richardson’s Pamela

c. Voltaire’s Candide

d. Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels

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