Geology

BEFORE you begin, please note: Last updated August 2013

This brief guide is primarily for students doing assignments at Curtin University, not

for those publishing using the APA 6th style.

If you are publishing in the APA 6th style, please consult the APA publication manual:

American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the

American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

If you require extra help not available in this guide please try

 APA style guide to electronic references

 APA Style Blog

Guide contents Overview:

 What is referencing?

 Why reference?

 Steps involved in referencing

 Elements of a reference

 Sample reference list

 Reference types for EndNote X6

Reference Examples:

 Books and eBooks

 Journals (Print and Online)

 World Wide Web

 Government Publications

 Other Sources

 Authors Citing Other Authors

It is important that you check the assignment guide of your Department or School as

details may vary from the guidelines on this sheet. You may be penalised for not using the

referencing style that is required by your School/Department.

Academic integrity and plagiarism Plagiarism breaches academic integrity and is a serious accusation in academia. Make sure you

avoid plagiarism by referencing your sources.

Refer to the Curtin University student booklet Academic Integrity: Student Guidelines for Avoiding Plagiarism for

definitions and University policies relating to academic integrity and plagiarism.

CURTIN UNIVERSITY LIBRARY APA 6th REFERENCING

Page 2 of 14

What is Referencing?

Referencing is a standardised method of acknowledging sources of information and ideas that you have

used in your assignment in a way that uniquely identifies their source. Direct quotations, facts and

figures, as well as ideas and theories, from both published and unpublished works, must be referenced.

Why Reference?

Referencing is necessary to avoid plagiarism, to verify quotations, and to enable readers to follow-up and

read more fully the cited author’s arguments.

Steps Involved in Referencing

1. Collecting Bibliographic Details

Note down the full bibliographic details of the source from which the information is taken, including the

relevant page number(s). This information is the basis of a citation or reference.

In the case of a book, ‘bibliographical details’ refers to: author/editor, year of publication, title,

edition, volume number, place of publication and publisher as found on the front and back of the title

page. (Not all of these details will necessarily be applicable).

In the case of a journal article the details required include: author of the article, year of publication,

title of the article, title of the journal, volume and issue number of the journal, and page numbers.

For all electronic information, in addition to the above you should note the DOI (Digital Object

Identifier) if one exists, and if one does not exist, the web address (URL) of the database you found

the article in. For more details see the DOI Information Sheet.

2. In-Text Citations

A citation inserted at the appropriate place within the text of the document is called an in-text citation.

This usually takes the form of the name of the author, followed by the year of publication.

Two acceptable forms of in-text citations are:

Miller and Collins (2009) – use and when family names are outside parentheses

(Miller & Collins, 2009) – use & when family names are inside parentheses

If two or more authors are cited at the same point in the text then they are included in the same in-text

citation, separated by a semicolon, e.g., (Brown, 1991; Smith, 2003).

Short quotes

For fewer that 40 words incorporate the quote into the text and use double quotation marks.

“………………………….” (Brown & Brown, 2008, p.112).

Brown and Brown (2008) suggested “……………………………” (p. 112), and this

would provide…

When paraphrasing, the APA 6th manual (p.171) encourages you to provide page or paragraph

numbers to help the reader locate the information.

Use paragraph number for .html documents (e.g. British Empire 1922, 2009, para.4)

Page 3 of 14

Page Numbers

Use p. for a single page and pp. for double pages.

Long Quotes

If the quotation is 40 or more words use a freestanding block of text

 start on a new line

 indent the block about half an inch from the left

 use double spacing

 omit quotations marks

3. Reference List

A reference list includes books, journal articles etc that you have cited in the text of

your essay whereas a bibliography is a list of sources consulted as well as cited.

 The reference should appear at the end of your work on a separate page

 The reference list is arranged alphabetically by author

 Where an item has no author it is cited and listed by its title

 The second and subsequent lines of each reference need a hanging indent

 Use double spacing between references

Example of a Reference List in the APA style

Reference Types to use with EndNote

Page 4 of 14

Elements of a Reference

A reference or citation consists of elements that allow the reader to trace the original book, article or

website you have consulted and cited.

Underlined hyperlink in URL

This can be removed if required. APA has no rule regarding the inclusion of a hyperlink and they

provide no guidance. This is at the discretion of the respective lecturers. For more information see the

APA Style Blog FAQ

Book title

Mack, C. (2005). Looking at the Renaissance: Essays toward a conceptual appreciation.

London, UK: Taylor & Francis.

Author (Year)

Place of publication Publisher

Book:

Pope, J., & Owen A. D. (2009). Emission trading schemes: Potential revenue effects,

compliance costs and overall tax policy issues. Energy Policy, 37, 4595-4603.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.06.014

Journal article from a database:

DOI Journal title Volume number

Web Page:

Article page numbers

Steel, W. (2008). Hints for web authors. Retrieved from

http://www.mcsr.olemiss.edu/~mudws/webhints.html

Author (Year) Title

URL of the web page

Title of the journal article Author (Year)

Reference Types to use with EndNote

For Reference Types to use with EndNote, click here for the EndNote X5 LibGuide

For Reference Types to use with EndNote, click here for the EndNote X5 LibGuide

For Reference Types to use with EndNote, click here for the EndNote X5 LibGuide

Page 5 of 14

Books (Print &

Online)

In-Text Example Reference List Examples

Single author The theory was first considered in 2000 (Pash, 2008) OR Pash (2008) claimed that…

Pash, C. (2008). The last whale. North Fremantle, WA: Fremantle Press.

2 authors Roitman and LaFontaine (2012) … OR “… to achieve consistency” (Roitman & LaFontaine, 2012, p. 45)

Roitman, J. L., & LaFontaine, T. P. (2012). The exercise professional’s guide to optimizing health: Strategies for preventing and reducing chromic disease. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health.

3,4,5 authors Conking, Alley, Broecker, and Denton (2011) Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs. In subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. Conking et al. (2011) suggested that … OR (Conking et al., 2011)

Conking, P. W., Alley, R. B., Broecker, W. S., & Denton, G. H. (2011). The fate of Greenland: Lessons from abrupt climate change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

6,7 authors Bulliet et al. (2011) found that… OR (Bulliet et al., 2011) Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al.

Bulliet, R. W., Crossley, P. K., Headrick, D. R., Hirsch, S. W., Johnson, L. L., & Northrup, D. (2011). The earth and its peoples: A global history (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth.

8 or more authors (Gradel et al., 2007, p. 35) OR Gradel et al. (2007, p. 35) stated… Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al.

Gradel, E., Kolaitis, P. G., Libkin, L., Marx, M., Spencer, J., Vardi, M. Y., … Weinstein, S. (2007). Finite model theory and its applications. Berlin, Germany: Springer.

For works with 8 or more authors, list the first 6 authors, followed by 3 full stops (…) then the last author’s name.

No author (Employment the professional way, 2000) OR the book Employment the professional way (2000) Shorten title

Employment the professional way: A guide to understanding the Australian job search process for professionally qualified migrants. (2000). Carlton, Vic: Australian Multicultural Foundation.

Page 6 of 14

Books (Print & Online)

In-Text Example Reference List Examples

Multiple works by same author

University research (Martin, 2008, 2010) has indicated that…

Martin, G. (2008). Essentials of terrorism: Concepts and controversies. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications. Martin, G. (2010). Understanding terrorism: Challenges, perspectives, and issues. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Order chronologically in the reference list.

Multiple works published in the same year by the same author

In recent reports (Napier, 1993a, 1993b)… Use a/b etc. to differentiate between works in same year.

Napier, A. (1993a). Fatal storm. Sydney, NSW: Allen & Unwin. Napier, A. (1993b). Survival at sea. Sydney, NSW: Allen & Unwin. Order alphabetically by title in the reference list.

Works by different authors with same surname

(L. Green, 2010) OR L. Green (2010) (R. Green, 2008) OR R. Green (2008)

Green, L. (2010). The internet: An introduction to new media. New York, NY: Berg. Green, R. (2008). Global warming. Ann Arbor, MI: Cherry Lake Publishing.

Editor (Kasdorf, 2003, p. 15)

Kasdorf, W. E. (Ed.). (2003). The Columbia guide to digital publishing. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Different Editions (Renton, 2004, p. 51) OR (Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary, 2005)

Renton, N. (2004). Compendium of good writing (3rd ed.). Milton Keynes, UK: John Wiley & Sons. OR Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2005). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster. An edition number is placed after the title of the work – this is not necessary for a first edition.

Encyclopedia or Dictionary or multi- volume work

The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians (1980, p.85) defined it as…

Sadie, S. (Ed.). (1980). The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians (6th ed., Vols. 1-20). London, UK: Macmillan.

Article or chapter in a book

As discussed by Friedl (2003)…

Friedl, E. (2003). Society and sex roles. In J. P. Spradley & D. W. McCurdy (Eds.), Conformity and conflict: Readings in cultural anthropology (11th ed., pp. 261-289). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Article or chapter in a book – no author

(“Solving the Y2K Problem,” 1997) Put title in quotation marks.

Solving the Y2K problem. (1997). In D. Bowd (Ed.), Technology today and tomorrow (p. 27). New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Image in a book The poster “The 3 dark years” (Sexton, 2005, p. 184)

Sexton, M. (2005). The great crash: The short life and sudden death of the Whitlam government. Melbourne, Vic: Scribe Publications.

Page 7 of 14

Books (Print & Online)

In-Text Example Reference List Example

Book review (Robbins, 2010)

Robbins, M. (2011). Conservation biology [Review of the book The American bird conservancy guide to bird conservation, by D. J. Lebbin, M. J. Parr & G. H. Fenwick]. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 86(4) 343-344. http:dx.doi.org/10.1086/662504

Electronic book (eBook)

(Apolloni, Pedrycz, Bassis & Malchiodi, 2008, p. 130)

Apolloni, B., Pedrycz, W., Bassis, S., & Malchiodi, D. (2008). The puzzle of granular computing. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/content/g6u77ux5v746/ #section=246151&page=1 Supply DOI where available, or URL (shorten URL) in the absence of DOI.

Chapter in eBook (Andrzej, Michael, & Philip, 2011)

Andrzej, G., Michael, B., & Philip, C. (2011). High performance computing clouds. In B. Benatallah (Ed.), Cloud computing methodology, systems, and applications (pp. 221-259). http://dx.doi.org/:doi:10.1201/b11149-14

Thesis or Dissertation— unpublished

(Ciccarelli, 2008, p. 89)

Ciccarelli, M. L. (2008). Variation of posture and muscle activity during information and communication technology use by adults and school children. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Curtin University of Technology, Bentley, W. A.

Thesis or Dissertation—published available from an institutional database

(Dwyer, 2009, p. 152)

Dwyer, R. (2009). Agency and exchange: An ethnography of heroin marketplace. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://espace.library.curtin.edu.au Shorten URL

Journals (Print & Online)

In-Text Example Reference List Example

Article (Print)

As mentioned by Morberg, Lagerstrom, and Dellve (2009)… OR “… the head school nurse’s job” (Morberg, Lagerstrom, & Dellve, 2009, p. 813)

Morberg, S., Lagerstrom, M., & Dellve, L. (2009). The perceived perceptions of head school nurses in developing school nursing roles within schools. Journal of Nursing Management, 17, 813-821. Where the page numbers in the entire volume run consecutively, do not use issue number after the volume number.

Article – no author (Print)

(“New Baltic Icebreakers,” 2005) Use a short title with capitalisation and enclosed in quotation marks.

New Baltic icebreakers under construction at Baltiyski Zavod. (2005). Naval Architect, (July/August), 32-34.

Page 8 of 14

Journals (Print & Online)

In-Text Example Reference List Example

Newspaper article (Wilson, 2009) (Seelye, 2010)

Wilson, A. (2009, November 26). BHP Billiton cautious on pace of global economic growth. The Australian, p. 3. If electronic, give the URL of the newspaper homepage. Seelye, K.Q. (2012, December 3). Spate of harsh weather in New England shifts sentiment on trees. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

Newspaper article – no author

(“Ingenuity and Hard Work,” 2009) Use a short title with capitalisation and enclosed in quotation marks.

Ingenuity and hard work – 20 years of internet in Australia. (2009, November 26). Sydney Morning Herald, p. 35. If electronic, give the URL of the newspaper homepage. Use Retrieved from followed by URL.

Press release (Watersmith, 2000) (American Psychological Association, 2010 )

Watersmith, C. (2000, March 1). BHP enters new era [Press release]. Melbourne, Vic: BHP Limited. American Psychological Association. (2010, August 15). Today’s superheroes send wrong image to boys, say researchers [Press release]. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2010/08/macho- stereotype-unhealthy.aspx

Full text journal from an electronic database – DOI available

(Pope & Owen, 2009) OR As Pope and Owen (2009) state…

Pope, J., & Owen, A. D. (2009). Emission trading schemes: Potential revenue effects, compliance costs and overall tax policy issues. Energy Policy, 37, 4595-4603. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.06.014 Where the page numbers in the entire volume run consecutively, do not use issue number after the volume number. Do not include the name of the database. Use Retrieved from followed by URL if no DOI

Full text journal from an electronic database – DOI not available

(Marshall & Anderson, 2008, p.464) OR As Marshall and Anderson (2008, p.464) state… If the article is in .pdf format, cite the page number. If it is in .html format, cite the paragraph number.

Marshall, K., & Anderson, J. (2008). The Emperor’s new clothes: A meta-study of education technology policies in Ireland, North and South (1996-2006). Computers & Education, 50(2), 463-474. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com APA recommends using the journal homepage. However, for practical reasons the University has adopted the gateway URL as this will be easier for students. Shorten URL. Include the issue number if the journal is paginated by issue.

Full text journal from an electronic database – no author

The Internet has had a huge impact on the Australian economy (“Mobile Phone Addiction,” 2010)… Put title in quotation marks.

Mobile phone addiction: A point of issue. (2010). Addiction, 105, 373-374. Retrieved from http://proquest.umi.com Where the page numbers in the entire volume run consecutively, do not use issue number after the volume number. Shorten URL. Use Retrieved from followed by URL if no DOI.

Page 9 of 14

Journals (Print & Online)

In-Text Example Reference List Example

Full text newspaper, newswire or magazine from an electronic database – no author

(“Call to Save Indigenous Languages,” 2009) Put title in quotation marks. Shorten title if necessary.

Call to save indigenous languages. (2009, October 31). The Canberra Times. Retrieved from http://global.factiva.com Shorten URL

Full text from Internet –

more than 7 authors

Keogh et al., 2009, p.256)

If an article is in .pdf format, cite the

page number. If it is in .html format,

cite the paragraph number.

Keogh, L. A., van Vliet, C. M., Studdert, D. M., Maskiell, J. A., Macrae, F. A., St John, D. J., … Jenkins, M. A.

(2009). Is the uptake of genetic testing for colorectal cancer influenced by knowledge of insurance

implications? Medical Journal of Australia, 191(5), 255-258. Retrieved from http://www.mja.com.au/

public/issues/191_05_070909/keo11470_fm.pdf

For works with more than 7 authors, list the first 6 authors, followed by 3 fullstops (…) then spell out

the last author’s name. For other author variations refer to page 5.

In-press article (Briscoe, in press) Briscoe, R. (in press). Egocentric spatial representation in action and perception. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. Retrieved from http://cogprints.org/57801/ECSRAP.F07.pdf

Abstract as original source

(Giglia, 2012) Use if full text is not available

Giglia, R.C. (2012). Alcohol consumption for breastfeeding women: Where to for policy makers? Current Pediatric Reviews, 8(4), 299-303. Abstract retrieved from http://www.scopus.com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au Use if full text is not available

Article from Curtin E-Reserve

(Flahvin, 1997, p.12)

Flahvin, A. (1997). Sattin and the spectre of media liability for negligence. Communications Law Bulletin, 16(4), 11-14. Retrieved from http://edocs.library.curtin.edu.au/eres_display.cgi? url=dc60209184.pdf

Systematic Reviews (Leach & Morris, 2006)

Leach, A. J., & Morris, P. S. (2006). Antibiotics for the prevention of acute and chronic suppurative otitis media in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2006(4), 1-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004401.pub2

World Wide Web

In-Text Example Reference List Examples

Document on WWW

(Steel, 2008 )

Steel, W. (2008). Hints for web authors. Retrieved from http://www.mcsr.olemiss.edu/~mudws/webhints.html

Document on WWW – No author

(“British Empire 1922,” 2009, para.4) Use paragraph numbers for html documents.

British Empire 1922 and other empires. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.angelfire.com/mac/egmatthews/worldinfo/europe/empire.html

Page 10 of 14

World Wide Web

In-Text Example Reference List Examples

Document on WWW – No date

(Royal Institute of British Architects, n.d.)

Royal Institute of British Architects. (n.d.). Becoming an architect. Retrieved from http://www.architecture.com/EducationAndCareersBecomingAnArchitectBecominganarchitect.aspx

Entire Website not specific document

Give the URLof the site in the text: Kidspsych (http://www.kidspsych.org) is a children’s website.

No entry required in the reference list

Blog post Blog post reply

McDonald (2010) suggests that… (the smart one, 2010)

Use the screen name for the author of a blog post, if the author has adopted one.

McDonald, S.(2010, September 27). Noise in the library. [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://blogs.curtin.edu.au/library/2010/09 the smart one. (2010, October 3). Re: Noise in the library. [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://blogs.curtin.edu.au/library/2010/09

Include full URL

Conference paper in Proceedings

(Prayag & Ramjee, 2009) OR As discussed by Prayag and Ramjee (2009)

Prayag, I. L., & Ramjee, R. (2009). The impact of Newcastle disease control on smallholder poultry production in Mauritius. In R. G. Alsers, P. B. Spadbrow, & M. P. Young (Eds.), Village chickens, poverty alleviation and the sustainable control of Newcastle disease: Proceedings of an international conference held in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 5-7 October 2005 (pp. 132-134). Canberra, ACT: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.

In the case of conference proceedings available electronically, replace publisher and location details with the DOI where available or URL in the absence of DOI.

E-mail discussion list – web archive

(cindiann, 2009) cindiann. (2009, July 23). Re: Recommended photography books [Online discussion group comment]. Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/groups/365libs/discuss/72157621780867836/

Use the screen name (or nickname) the author adopts if this is used in the discussion group entry.

Facebook (Page, Note or Update) If date can be reasonably approximated use ca for (circa) [ca. 2010]

(Group name, 2009) To cite a Facebook feed as a whole or to discuss it in general give the site URL in text, inside parentheses. There is no need for a reference list entry.

When I was your age, Pluto was a planet. [ca. 2009]. In Facebook [Group page]. Retrieved December 16, 2009, from http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=2207893888

Image on the web The photo “Autumn ivy” (Curtin University Library, 2007)……

Curtin University Library. (2007). Autumn ivy [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/curtinuniversitylibrary/1440410713/

Order now and get 10% discount on all orders above $50 now!!The professional are ready and willing handle your assignment.

ORDER NOW »»