Geology

Question 26 – When Benioff-Wadati zones are plotted on a map, they show:

A. Elastic modulus values in rocks within a subduction zone

B. Semiconcentric zones of varying degrees of earthquake damage

C. Earthquake numbers decreasing away from areas of oceanic rifting

D. Earthquakes foci becoming progressively deeper inland from ocean trenches

Question 27 – Major earthquakes are most likely to occur in all of the following tectonic setting EXCEPT:

A. Transform boundaries

B. Divergent boundaries

C. Subduction zones

D. Continental collision boundaries

Question 28 – Which type of rock is most likely to contain fossils?

A. Igneous rocks

B. Metamorphic rocks

C. Sedimentary rocks

D. All of the above

Question 29 – Of the following organisms, the best index fossils would be:

A. Cockroaches, because they have existed in widespread geographic areas almost since the first appearance of insects.

B. Bacteria, because they have existed in widespread geographic areas since life first began

C. A specific type of bryzoa that existed for only a short geologic time in very limited geographic areas

D. A specific type of trilobite that existed for only a short geologic time in widespread geographic areas

Question 30 – All of the following radiometric dating methods are useful for rocks older than 100,000 years EXCEPT:

A. Uranium lead dating

B. Potassium-argon dating

C. Rubidium-strontium dating

D. Carbon-14 dating

Question 31 – A rock or mineral becomes a closed system when it completely cols and crystallizes. Which of the following rocks would become a closed system most rapidly?

A. Granite

B. Basalt

C. Gneiss

D. Schist

Question 32 – The chain of volcanoes along the west coast of South America (the Andes Mountains) exist because:

A. The Pacific Plate is sliding past the South American Plate and heading toward the northwest

B. The Pacific Plate is rifting apart from the South American Plate

C. An oceanic plate is subducting under the western edge of the South America

D. Basalt is pushing up through the trench that parallels the west coast of South America

Question 33 – Pick out the FALSE statement. According to present plate tectonics theory:

A. Plates move at speeds of a few centimeters per year

B. A continental plate will subduct under an oceanic plate when the two converge

C. Plates are composed of the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle

D. Plates diverge at mid-ocean ridges

Question 34 – The huge trough down the center of the mid-ocean ridge is where:

A. The Hawaiian Island chain formed

B. Two continental plates converge

C. Molten basalt subducts back into the Earth

D. The actual divergent plate boundary is located

Question 35 – The portion of the Earth’s interior that flows and is partially responsible for the motion of tectonic plates is known as the:

A. Lithosphere

B. Asthenosphere

C. Mesosphere

D. Inner core

Question 36 – Old, cold lithosphere is more dense than which of the following?

A. The underlying ware asthenosphere

B. The continental lithosphere

C. Younger oceanic lithosphere

D. All of the above

Question 37 – Of the following orogenic belts, which is still forming and growing today?

A. Appalachian

B. Urals

C. Caledonides

D. Himalaya

Question 38 – What evidence suggests that the Rocky Mountains were formed by plate convergence?

A. Strike slip faults are common

B. Continental basalts are common

C. Giant thrusts of sedimentary rock are common

D. Ophiolites are common

Question 39 – Which of the following statements concerning the most recent ice age is NOT true?

A. We now live in a warm interglacial period of an ice age

B. In some places in North America, ice was 2.5 miles during the last major ice advance

C. The last glacial advance occurred during the Pleistocene Epoch that ended about 10,000 years ago.

D. About 20,000 years ago, ice covered roughly 50% of the Earth’s land surface

Question 40 – Which of the following are reasons glacial ice forms?

A. Most precipitation in glacial areas consists of hard-packed snow pellets called firm

B. Water produced by pressure melting migrates to open spaces in the snowpack and refreezes

C. Winter low temperatures probably contribute less to glacial growth than cool, cloudy, brief summers

D. All of the above

Question 41 – Of the many contributing factors, the salinity-driven ocean currents are being studied as a major factor in ice-age glacial expansions because:

A. Salt lowers the freezing point of water

B. Dense saline water has a higher albedo than less saline water

C. Their heat-carrying capacity during nonglacial times transports heat from the lower latitudes to the higher latitudes

D. Dense saline currents are more able to transport large blocks of ice

Question 42 – The primary difference between resources and reserves is that:

A. Resources are materials currently available to the public, while reserves remain in the ground for future use

B. Resources exist but recovery is not currently profitable; reserves can be extracted for profit

C. Resources refer to all available useful materials, while reserves refer only to available fossil fuels

D. Resources still remain in the ground, while reserves have been mined and are in storage

Question 43 – Oil shale contains kerogen rather than oil because:

A. It was never buried deeply enough to raise its temperature to that required to produce oil

B. Shale is not permeable enough to allow the kerogen to move freely through the rock

C. The organisms required to produced oil were never deposited within the shale

D. There has not been sufficient time for further breakdown of the large kerogen molecules

Question 44 – The main drawback of geothermal energy is that:

A. Heat-resistant pipe materials through which magma can be circulated are extremely expensive

B. Utilization of this energy is limited to currently or recently active plate margins and hot spots

C. Utilization of this energy is limited to current or recently active plate margins and hot spots

D. Geothermal heat sources are buried beneath nearly impenetrable rock

Question 45 – Which of the following statements correctly differentiates between passive and active solar energy?

A. Passive solar energy heats areas by natural radiation, conduction, and convection, while active solar energy heats areas by the circulation of solar-heated water

B. Passive solar energy is used for stationary purposes, such as the heating of a building, while active solar energy is used for transportable purposes, such as running an electric car

C. Passive solar energy is used to generate heat, while active solar energy is used to generate electricity

D. Passive solar energy can be used in areas where there is abundant sunshine, while active solar energy is transported from sunnier regions to regions receiving very little sunshine

Question 46 – By the standard definition of a mineral, under what conditions can Ice (H20) be considered a mineral?

Need to write a paragraph essay and cited when necessary – no plagiarism

Question 47 – The sustainability of out civilization relies heavily upon providing the necessary mineral resources for future advances in technology, medicine, and electronics. Describe three methods by which we will meet tomorrow’s needs form mineral resources.

Need to write a paragraph essay and cited when necessary – no plagiarism

Question 48 – Describe the formation and thus subsequent breakup of the supercontinent Pangea, paying attention to the timing of events

Need to write a paragraph essay and cited when necessary – no plagiarism

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