Environmental science

Midterm Exam Study Guide USP 2: Urban World System. Fall 2017

This is your study guide for the Midterm Exam. We will modify this together as a class. The exam will be composed of multiple choice, definitions, short answers, and an essay question. Below are the values to be assigned to each section with the instructions exactly as they will appear on the midterm exam.

BRING A BLUEBOOK TO CLASS FOR THE MIDTERM (you must do the exam in class without the help of notes, articles or books)

· (I).MULTIPLE CHOICE (10 @ 1 points = 10%) Select the letter of the correct answer.

· (II) DEFINITIONS (3 @ 10 points = 30%) Pick four out of the eight terms listed below. For each term you pick, give: (a) a brief definition, (b) a concise observation about the term’s meaning (significance) with respect to urban-regional development and/or planning, and (c) at least one reference to literature on the subject (one of your required readings in USP2). Your references should include the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the title of the article or book.

· (III) SHORT ANSWERS (2 @ 15 points = 30%) Pick two out of four questions listed below. For each question be sure to include reference to at least one required reading in USP2. Your references should include the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the title of the article or book.

· (IV) ESSAY QUESTIONS (1 @ 30 points = 30%) Answer one out of the three questions listed below. Be sure to include reference to at least two required reading in USP2. Your references should include the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the title of the article or book.

Below is a clarification that simplifies the requirement to cite references.

· Authors last name: You have to include this. But in cases where there is more than one author, just list the first author followed by et al. (Reid, et al.). “Et al.” is a scholarly abbreviation of the Latin phrase et alia, which means “and others.”

· Year of publication; You have to include this. But, we aren’t going to nit pick. You won’t loose points for an incorrect date….just be sure to include your best guess if you cannot recall the precise year.

· Title: You have to include this too, BUT….don’t worry about getting all the exact words. Just give us enough to demonstrate you have the gist of it. My book for instance can be listed as Human Settlements and Planning, or The Case of Mexico City, or you might even list the full accurate title, Human Settlements and Planning for Ecological Sustainability: The Case of Mexico City. Any one of these would do.

(I) MULTIPLE CHOICE   Content that will be use to create multiple choice questions will be drawn from the World Cities Report (all chapters) and United Nations Data Booklet (excerpts from pp 2-3). Of course, learning this content will give you data/knowledge for inclusion in other parts of the exam (definitions, short answer, and essay).

The analysis of urban development of the past twenty years presented in this maiden edition of the World Cities Report shows, with compelling evidence, that there are new forms of collaboration and cooperation, planning, governance, finance and learning that can sustain positive change. The Report unequivocally demonstrates that the current urbanization model is unsustainable in many respects. It conveys a clear message that the pattern of urbanization needs to change in order to better respond to the challenges of our time, to address issues such as inequality, climate change, informality, insecurity, and the unsustainable forms of urban expansion. http://wcr.unhabitat.org/main-report/

Chapter 1 – From Habitat II to Habitat III: Twenty Years of Urban Development

1. Persistent urban issues over the last 20 years include urban growth, changes in family patterns, growing number of urban residents living in slums and informal settlements, and the challenge of providing urban services.

2. Connected to these persistent urban issues are newer trends in the urban governance and finance: emerging urban issues include climate change, exclusion and rising inequality, rising insecurity and upsurge in international migration.

Chapter 4 – The Widening Urban Divide

1. Today the world is more unequal than it was twenty years ago: 75 per cent of the world’s cities have higher levels of income inequalities than two decades ago.

2. Too many cities today fail to make sustainable space for all, not just physically, but also in the civic, socioeconomic and cultural realms.

3. The spatial concentration of low-income unskilled workers in segregated residential quarters acts as a poverty trap with severe job restrictions, high rates of gender disparities, deteriorated living conditions, social exclusion and marginalization and high incidence of crime.

Chapter 5 – “Just” Environmental Sustainabilities

1. By 2030, global demand for energy and water is expected to grow by 40 and 50 per cent respectively.

2. Solid waste management dominates municipal annual budgets in low- and middle-income countries, with shares of 30 to 50 per cent

3. In urban areas, climate change impacts like heat waves, heavy precipitations and droughts can compound one another, making disaster risk management more complex.

4. Faced with extreme events, cities increasingly understand that novel ways are called for to build resilience, in the process contributing to a more equitable environment

Chapter 9 – Principles For a New Urban Agenda

1. The emergence of new urban areas and urban extensions in anticipation of demographic growth will by itself cause more emissions that than the world has generated in the last century.

2. The loss of density in urban areas over the last two decades demonstrates that demographic and spatial expansion go hand in hand. Less dense cities bring higher infrastructure costs, worsen mobility, and destroy agricultural land.

3. The dynamics of cities’ emerging futures will result in new urban forms and new patterns of well-being for people, new patterns of behaviour and resource use, and new opportunities and risks.

4. Despite their increasing economic and demographic significance in both rich and poor countries, the role of cities is neither widely understood nor fully recognized in global official and public debates.

United Nations Data Booklet (excerpts from pp 2-3)

The world’s cities are growing in both size and number In 2016, there were 512 cities with at least 1 million inhabitants globally. By 2030, a projected 662 cities will have at least 1 million residents. Cities with more than 10 million inhabitants are often termed “megacities”. In 2016, there were 31 megacities globally and their number is projected to rise to 41 by 2030.

One in five people worldwide lives in a city with more than 1 million inhabitants

In 2016, 1.7 billion people—23 per cent of the world’s population— lived in a city with at least 1 million inhabitants. By 2030, a projected 27 per cent of people worldwide will be concentrated in cities with at least 1 million inhabitants.

Between 2016 and 2030, the population in all city size classes is projected to increase, while the rural population is projected to decline slightly. While rural areas were home to more than 45 per cent of the world’s population in 2016, that proportion is expected to fall to 40 per cent by 2030.

A minority of people reside in megacities—500 million, representing 6.8 per cent of the global population in 2016. But, as these cities increase in both size and number, they will become home to a growing share of the population. By 2030, a projected 730 million people will live in cities with at least 10 million inhabitants, representing 8.7 per cent of people globally.

A majority of city dwellers live in cities that face high risk of disaster related mortality or economic losses

Some 82 per cent of cities—home to 1.9 billion people in 2014—were located in areas that faced high risk of mortality associated with natural disasters. Similarly, 89 per cent of cities—home to 2.1 billion people in 2014—were located in areas that were highly vulnerable to economic losses associated with at least one of the six types of natural disaster. On average, cities in the less developed regions were at higher risk of exposure to natural disasters and were more vulnerable to disaster-related economic losses and mortality than those in the more developed regions. Moreover, larger cities tended to be at higher risk of exposure to disasters and more vulnerable to disaster-related economic losses and mortality compared to smaller cities.

Floods were the most common type of natural disaster affecting cities, followed by droughts and cyclones. These three types of disaster were also the most devastating for city dwellers globally in terms of the mortality and economic losses they caused.

Here are some examples of multiple choice questions (these may or may not appear on the exam)

1. There are now approximately _____ cities around the world with populations greater than one million people.   a) 500     b) 800   c) 1200     d) 1800.

2. Most of the world’s urban population live in megacities (cities with more than 10 million inhabitants). a) true b) false

3. By 2030, global demand for energy and water is expected to grow by roughly _____% per cent respectively. a) 2 and 4,     b) 10 and 20       c) 40 and 50,      d) 110 and 150

4. The most common type of natural disaster affecting cities worldwide is, a) flood, b) drought c) cyclones d) fires e) earthquakes

5. Today the world is more unequal than it was twenty years ago: ___% of the world’s cities have higher levels of income inequalities than two decades ago. a. 5 b. 25 c. 50 d. 75

(II) DEFINITIONS Fom this list of terms we will select 6 and include them on your Midterm Exam. From the 6 terms on your Midterm, you must choose and define 3 of them.  For each definition you write for the Midterm include reference to at least one required reading in USP2. Your references should include the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the title of the article or book.

1. Bioregional Transition

2. Globalization

3. Localization

4. World City Hypothesis

5. Knowledge Action Networks

6. Sustainability Science

7. Urbanization

8. Urban World System

9. Climigration

10. Localism

11. Authentic Demand (per Global ARC)

12. Agenda 21

13. Gender Equity (in terms of planning)

14. Developing World

15. New Urban Agenda

16. The Perfect Storm

17. Anthropocene

18. Community Engagement

19. Sustainable Development

20. Progressive Ruralism

21. Scientific Reticence

22. The Great Filter

23. Colonia Ecologica Productiva

24. One Bioregion/One Health

25. Bioregionalism

26. Healthy Cities

For each of the 3 terms you select on the Midterm, you must give: (a) a brief definition, (b) a concise observation about the term’s meaning (significance) with respect to urban-regional development and/or planning, and (c) at least one reference to literature on the subject (one of your required readings in USP2). Your references should include the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the title of the article or book. The example below is provided as a model of the length/format we want for each “definition.”

Agenda 21  (a). Agenda 21 is the principal outcome of the 1992 Earth Summit. It is the first comprehensive sustainable development action plan adopted by the international community. It contains an integrated set of strategies and programs to halt and reverse the effects of environmental degradation.  (b). Agenda 21 has been cited by many governmental and non-governmental organizations as their practical guide for halting and reversing the effects of environmental degradation (c). The UN-Habitat 2016 World Cities Report

(III) SHORT ANSWERS. To make the exam more predictable we are providing you with the precise wording of the short answer questions (see below). Not all the short answer questions listed below will appear on the exam. Only 4 of the 6 listed here will be included (from the 4 that do get included you must choose and answer 3 of them)  For each answer include reference to at least one required reading in USP2. Your references should include the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the title of the article or book.

1. No matter what political perspective colors one’s analysis, the past half-century of globalization can be viewed as having four fundamental features (as spelled out in USP2 lectures). What are they? Give one example for each. Include reference to at least one required reading in USP2.

2. As discussed in USP2 lectures and readings, what is the significance of this diagram: [From D–>E, to E–>D]?  Incorporate into your short answer evidence (i.e., one or more examples) that illustrate how this shift is taking place.  Include reference to at least one required reading in USP2.

3. The world’s global city-regions are increasingly interdependent economically and ecologically. Those studying processes of globalization from the perspective of human development have tended to focus on socio-economic and cultural dimensions of globalization. But now much more attention is paid to global ecological interdependence. In class we listed many global ecological megatrends that impact cities. List one global ecological megatrend and explain how it has the potential to impact the fate of cities (i.e., urban quality of life and place over the next few decades).  Include reference to at least one required reading in USP2.

4. Briefly outline global trends with respect to urban planning and informality including the spatial structure of cities and the provision of infrastructure. Include reference to at least one required reading in USP2.

5. Describe major characteristics of global urbanization (e.g., extent, speed, physical forms) and how the process unfolds differently in developing and developed countries.

6. Characterize what is unique about sustainability science as a new transdisciplinary academic field with an interest in regions as a useful unit of analysis for linking research to action.

(IV)  ESSAY QUESTIONS The midterm will ask you to answer ONE essay question (there will be 3 questions from which you can choose). We will select the 3 to be listed on the Midterm Exam from the list of 4 questions below.  Your essay must include reference to at least two required reading in USP2. Your references should include the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the title of the article or book.  1. One of USP 2’s major learning objectives is to help students gain a socio-ecological understanding of urban and bioregional development and planning from a health and justice perspective in a global context. Our capacity to address the complex and interlocking problems of the 21st century (e.g. climate change, food and water insecurity, economic crisis, large-scale disasters and widespread increases in preventable diseases) hinges on our ability to foster authentic and equitable collaboration among diverse, sometimes conflicting, interests. Narratives are key to framing collaborative efforts. One approach we discussed in class we called One Bioregion/One Health (OBROH). Explain the OBROH approach as a way to redefine human–ecological relationships in the quest for healthy place making.

2. The Routledge Handbook of Planning for Health and Well-Being authoritatively and comprehensively integrates health into planning, strengthening the hands of those who argue and plan for healthy environments. Jason Corburn (2017), in his chapter titled Urban Inequities, Population Health and Spatial Planning, argues that we need a better understanding of how planning and human health are interconnected. And he argues that we need a new healthy urban governance approach to create healthy cities: According to Corburn, what is the healthy urban governance framework? What does it embraces?

3. The grassroots leaders of the “Colonia Ecologica Productiva (CEP)” movement in Mexico City argued that urbanization under conditions of resource and income scarcity demands the integration of concerns about the environment and development. For this essay, tell us: (a) In what way did the CEP model aim to integrate concerns about the environment and development? (b) what was the fate of the CEP movement (how did it end up)?, and (c) conclude by outlining, with reference to some specific example, the most important lesson you think we should learn from the CEP case study.

4. Address any one of the following 4 USP 2 Topics using the And-But-Therefore (ABT) Template

· 1Global urbanization involves interlocking human-nature, urban-rural, economy-ecology relationships and interdependencies that have become increasingly complex and problematic.

· 2Theories and concepts that underpin our ideas, ethics and values concerning progress, innovation and development change over time; currently neoliberalism and the capital-mobility model (“free market capitalism”) has a major influence on urban, rural and regional development and planning.

· 3. Most urban growth over the coming three decades will take place under “irregular” conditions referred to as “urban informality,” –the case of Mexico City is a good illustration of the dynamics involved.

· 4. Green Infrastructure can strengthen local resilience to climate disruptions (e.g., fire, flood, and drought), “Bend the Curve” (reduce greenhouse gas emissions), and provide many other benefits.

Below is a list of all our reading for USP 2. All Files are on our Google Classroom Web site

World Cities Report 2016

New Urban Agenda (New-UN-Urban-Agenda-Adopted 2016-yellow)

David Harvey Book (we will cover this book after the midterm)

Localization

· The Localization Papers

· Localization Defined-De Young 2015

Sustainablity Science

· Sustainability Science –PNAS Clark 2007

· Sustainability science PNAS Seto 2017

Bioregionalism

· Pezzoli_BioregionalTranstion-2017

· Pezzoli-etal-2014-OBOH Global Society

· Pezzoli_2016_bioregionalism

· Progressive Ruralism PN_mag_W11_Pezzoli

Mexico City

· Pezzoli Human Settlements Book chaps 10 and 11

Green Infrastructure

· Green-Infrastructure-Definitions

· Green-Infrastructure-Definitions (www.sdclimatecollaborative.org/single-post/2017/02/14/Green-Infrastructure-In-the-San-Diego-Region

· Green_infrastructure_roadshow

· Green infrastructure city of san diego climate collaborative

Healthy City Planning

· Inequality and Urban Sustainability PNAS-Sampson-2017

· Ecosytem health PNAS-Galvani-2016

· Inequality and Urban Sustainability PNAS-Sampson-2017

· Health and City Planning_Corburn 2017

· Ecosytem health PNAS-Galvani-2016

Science Communication

· What Mass Extinctions Teach Us About Climate Change Today

· The Uninhabitable Earth-no-annotation

WEEK 1-5 Topics

Week 1Global urbanization involves interlocking human-nature, urban-rural, economy-ecology relationships and interdependencies that have become increasingly complex and problematic.

1. Interlocking ecological & social stresses in the world’s cities are raising concerns about sustainability, resilience and justice.

2. The way in which scientists communicate research to the public has come under scrutiny.

3. Humanities planetary scale impact on earth systems, including climate, has given rise to new terms like the Anthropocene and Climigration.

4. On average, cities in the less developed regions were at higher risk of exposure to natural disasters and were more vulnerable to disaster-related economic losses and mortality than those in the more developed regions.

5. Persistent urban issues over the last 20 years include growing number of urban residents living in slums and informal settlements, the challenge of providing urban services, exclusion and rising inequality, rising insecurity and upsurge in international migration.

Week 2-3Theories and concepts that underpin our ideas, ethics and values concerning progress, innovation and development change over time; currently neoliberalism and the capital-mobility model (“free market capitalism”) has a major influence on urban, rural and regional development and planning.

6. Global place-making happens in the face of fierce inter-city competition for footloose capital.

7. Today the world is more unequal than it was twenty years ago: 75 per cent of the world’s cities have higher levels of income inequalities than two decades ago.

8. The trend toward “localization” is giving rise to a “bioregional transition” in theories & practices of urban/ rural planning.

9. As a framework for action “bioregion is emerging as the most logical locus and scale for a sustainable, regenerative community to take root and to take place.” (Robert Thayer)

10. There is a Metrocentric bias in urban planning and regional development. This, in part, can be blamed for an impoverishment of rural wealth.

11. Faced with extreme events, cities increasingly understand that novel ways are called for to build resilience, in the process contributing to a more equitable environment

12. The UN-Habitat’s call for a “New Urban Agenda” is a response to pressure to redefine urban, rural and regional planning.

13. The socio-ecological and economic problems we face as a society are both technical and political. Having the technical solution is not enough if the political forces are not also addressed – that means understanding power – who has it and how do they use it.

Week 4. Most urban growth over the coming three decades will take place under “irregular” conditions referred to as “urban informality,” –the case of Mexico City is a good illustration of the dynamics involved.

14. Cities across the world are sprawling, and as such, densities are dramatically declining. In developing countries, a one per cent decline in densities per year between 2000 and 2050 would quadruple the urban land area.

15. Leaders of the “Colonia Ecologica Productiva (CEP)” movement in Mexico City argued that urbanization under conditions of resource and income scarcity demands the integration of concerns about the environment and development.

16. Too many cities today fail to make sustainable space for all, not just physically, but also in the civic, socioeconomic and cultural realms.

17. Planning capacity is grossly inadequate in much of the developing world. In the UK, there are 38 planners per 100,000 population, while in Nigeria and India the figure is 1.44 and 0.23 respectively.

Week 5. Green Infrastructure can strengthen local resilience to climate disruptions (e.g., fire, flood, and drought), “Bend the Curve” (reduce greenhouse gas emissions), and provide many other benefits.

18. Green infrastructure practices can be integrated into existing features of the built environment, including streets, parking lots, and landscaped areas.

19. Green infrastructure practices can be a viable option for managing stormwater in highly urbanized and infill situations where development density is desired and offsite mitigation is not a preferred alternative.

20. Urban landscapes have many small-scale pockets of space that are underutilized and sometimes unsightly. These spaces often are located in triangles at junctions of diagonal streets, in spaces between buildings, in vacant lots, or in corners of parking lots. These underused areas can be converted to a bioretention area or community garden with trees and attractive vegetation.

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