Environmental science

#36068 Topic: SCI 207 Our Dependence upon the Environment Number of Pages: 1 (Double Spaced) Number of sources: 2 Writing Style: APA Type of document: Essay Academic Level:Undergraduate Category: Environmental Issues Language Style: English (U.S.) Order Instructions: ATTACHED Week 3 – Assignment 1 Ground and Surface Water Interactions Laboratory [WLO: 2] [CLOs: 1, 3, 4, 5] This lab enables you to design models of different scenarios that affect the earth’s surface water and groundwater. The Process: Take the required photos and complete all parts of the assignment (calculations, data tables, etc.). On the “Lab Worksheet,” answer all of the questions in the “Lab Questions” section. Finally, transfer all of your answers and visual elements from the “Lab Worksheet” into the “Lab Report.” You will submit both the “Lab Report” and the “Lab Worksheet” to Waypoint. The Assignment: Making sure to complete all of the following items before submission: Before you begin this assignment, read the Groundwater and Surface Water Interactions Investigation ManualPreview the document and review The Scientific Method (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.presentation video. Follow the instructions in the manual to complete Activities 1, 2, and 3 using materials in your kit, augmented by additional materials that you will supply. Photograph each activity following these instructions: When taking lab photos, you need to include in each image a strip of paper with your name and the date clearly written on it. Complete all parts of the Week 3 Lab WorksheetPreview the document and answer all of the questions in the “Lab Questions” section. Transfer your responses to the lab questions and data tables and your photos from the “Lab Worksheet” into the “Lab Report” by downloading the Lab Report TemplatePreview the document. Submit your completed “Lab Report” and your “Lab Worksheet” through Waypoint. Groundwater and Surface Water Interactions Investigation Manual ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Made ADA compliant by NetCentric Technologies using the CommonLook® software Key Personal protective equipment (PPE) goggles gloves apron follow link to video photograph results and submit stopwatch required warning corrosion flammable toxic environment health hazard GROUNDWATER AND SURFACE WATER INTERACTIONS Overview Clean drinking water is vital for all human life. In this lab, students will learn how freshwater sources interact through the natural processes of the hydrosphere (all the water on the planet) and what happens to drinking water supplies when our planet becomes altered by human activities. Students will design models of different scenarios that affect the earth’s surface water and groundwater. The models will demonstrate overconsumption and dro Background The hydrosphere encompasses all the water on the planet. It includes freshwater and saltwater; liquid, solid, and vapor; and water that is both above ground and underground. All of these different sources of water interact and transform into one another through processes within the biogeochemical cycle known as the hydrological or water cycle (see Figure 1). Water falls to the earth as precipitation and runs off the land’s surface, infiltrates the ground, or evaporates from surface waters such as oceans, lakes, and rivers. The evaporated water vapor condenses in the clouds and falls to the earth over time as precipitation. Then the process begins again. The water that has infiltrated the ground, known as groundwater, is located in and below the water table, which is the top layer of the soil in which groundwater fills most of the pores. In the water table, water is able to enter the ground through unsaturated surface soil voids, filling the soil below this level due to natural gravitational pull. With this natural movement of water, the hydrosphere continuously cycles all phases of water to all parts of the earth. While water encompasses approximately 70% of Earth’s surface, freshwater, which accounts for only 3% of Earth’s water, is the only type of water that is readily accessible for human consumption. However, of that 3%, just under 1% is readily accessible, with the remaining water being held in Earth’s icy regions, which include glaciers and polar ice caps. This is known as the cryosphere, or the frozen portion of the hydrosphere (see Figure 2). continued on next page www.carolina.com/distancelearning 3 Figure 1. GROUNDWATER AND SURFACE WATER INTERACTIONS Background continued Groundwater Freshwater available for human use is made up of surface water and groundwater. When precipitation falls from the atmosphere to the earth, it becomes part of the environment by either washing across the land and into bodies of water or by percolating through the surface of the soil. Here, it can be taken up by plants or filtered deep into the ground. In the latter case, this surface water enters the ground through areas known as recharge zones. Water enters these unsaturated zones on the surface of the land by the natural pull of gravity. The porosity of a material is a measure of the void spaces in the rocks and soil, and the ability of water to pass through those void spaces is known as permeability. This water now enters the groundwater system and saturates the ground beneath. People rely on these zones to recharge aquifers. Through the use of wells, people can supply water to their homes. Deeper into the ground, multiple layers of unsaturated and saturated soil of many different pore sizes and material types exist. Some of these layers are permeable, whereas others are impermeable, which means that water cannot easily pass through them. Many types of ground consist of permeable materials, like rocky sediment, fine sand, or soil. Others are made of less permeable materials that impede the percolation of water, such as claylike dirt, thicker sand, or man-made structures such as paved streets and sidewalks. The types of material that make up the consistency of the ground impacts the ability to access the groundwater. Groundwater can sometimes be accessed by pumping wells placed in aquifers. Aquifers are underground basins from which water can be removed at a reasonable rate, with the most ideal aquifers containing many pore spaces for water storage. However, the size, depth, and amount of water within an aquifer can vary greatly, making the process of extracting groundwater from an aquifer variable as well. While most of Earth’s accessible freshwater is held in the ground, much of it is too deep for humans to access. Surface Water The small amount of remaining freshwater accessible for human use is made up of all the surface water from lakes, rivers, and ponds as well as the water vapor in the atmosphere (see Figure 2). There are many regions that don’t have access to groundwater sources and must rely on reservoirs, such as natural and man-made lakes, as a source of drinking water. With surface water making up a small continued on next page 4 Carolina Distance Learning Figure 2. percentage of freshwater worldwide, events such as droughts or excessive withdrawal from reservoirs within these areas can cause rapid depletion of vital water for highly populated, metropolitan areas that rely on these sources of drinking water. Also, many human-induced factors can lead to inaccessible freshwater. Impervious surfaces such as roads, parking lots, and buildings can limit the quality of accessible water by creating a surface for the runoff of pollutants into nearby bodies of water. Additionally, most water that is withdrawn from a waterway or aquifer is returned to the environment, but some is taken up by plants and animals or lost to evaporation, adding another source of inaccessible freshwater for humans. To understand how surface water and groundwater affect each other, let’s investigate some of these same scenarios but from a different perspective. For instance, impervious surfaces not only negatively affect the quality of surface water, but they can also block access to and pollute groundwater sources. Also, when excessive water is withdrawn from a groundwater well that is pumping water stored in the water table, surface water levels can be reduced greatly and can ruin the quality of the water. Similarly, pumping water from a freshwater reservoir can lower groundwater levels and possibly cause contamination. On the positive side, if there is sufficient rainfall in an environment, the water could overflow the land, feeding into marshes, rivers, or lakes. In contrast, if surface water receives excess rainfall, it could run onto and infiltrate the land to become groundwater. All in all, to truly understand the availability of water in a region, recognizing the interconnectedness of groundwater and surface water is of vital importance. Human-Induced Actions that Affect the Water Cycle There are many ways to limit or contaminate the freshwater available to humans. The overload of substances that are harmful to the environment, known as pollution, is a major issue affecting today’s freshwater supply. It is easier to determine the origin of certain pollutants than others; in turn, it is easier to prevent certain pollutants from occurring in the future than others. Point source pollution is pollution that can be tracked to one specific source. This source of pollution is identifiable and able to be limited if proper action is taken to control the pollutant source. A pipe from a wastewater treatment plant discharging waste into a water source (see Figure 3) and a person dumping gasoline into a water supply (such as a lake) continued on next page www.carolina.com/distancelearning 5 Figure 3. GROUNDWATER AND SURFACE WATER INTERACTIONS Background continued are examples of point source pollution. Many restrictions have been put in place to control waste from industries and wastewater treatment plants, but enforcing them is not an easy task. If the origin of a pollutant is unknown, it may be difficult to determine how it entered the freshwater supply. Non-point source pollution usually occurs from the movement of pollutants through a system to a different area, making its origins much harder to discover. When water moves toxic chemicals—such as fertilizers and pesticides, oil, and gasolines—over the ground or through an aquatic system such as a river or stream, the pollutants can travel large distances. Figure 4 shows an example of this movement of polluted water over an impermeable surface (road) into the sewer system. All these types of pollutants can start in one region and end up many miles away, making this type of pollution very difficult to prevent. Non-point source pollution is also the most prevalent type in the environment, making it extremely important to monitor. While pollution is a big part of what limits our available freshwater resources, there are also issues with overwithdrawal and overconsumption from aquifers and reservoirs. With very few limits set on water usage in most developed countries, people worldwide use water at a rate that is faster than it is able to be replenished in the environment. Although water is recycled through precipitation, evaporation, and runoff in the water cycle, there is a need for limits on water usage to ensure that sufficient water supplies are accessible. In a model known as the water budget, the inputs, outputs, and storage of water in the environment are calculated and balanced to ensure equal recycling. However, with droughts and excessive withdrawals occurring in many areas around the world, water usage must be monitored and lowered to keep the budget balanced. In the United States, each person uses an average of 150 gallons of water per day; in multiple developing countries, the average person uses fewer than 10 gallons of water per day. Of the large amount of water that is used by the United States, only 13% is used by households. The other 87% is used by industry and for agriculture. Even though there is only a small percentage of freshwater readily available for human consumption around the world, it is still being used at a rate that can lead to dangerously low levels in the near future. Through the following activities, you will create groundwater and surface water models to demonstrate the impact of several important factors on drinking water. 6 Carolina Distance Learning Figure 4. www.carolina.com/distancelearning 7 Materials Needed from the materials kit: Clay, ¼-pound Sand, 4 cups Gravel, 2 cups blue bar 2 Pieces aquarium tubing Kool-Aid® drink mix packet Plastic container, 64 ounces Plastic cup Needed from the equipment kit: Reorder Information: Replacement supplies for the Groundwater and Surface Water Interactions investigation can be ordered from Carolina Biological Supply Company, item number 580817. Call: 800.334.5551 to order. Needed but not supplied: • Water • Tape • Plastic bowl/container • Scissors • Paper towels • Stopwatch (or a cell phone with a timer) • Camera (or cell phone capable of taking photographs) 2 Plastic tubes 3 Straws Syringe, 10 mL Disposable Foam cup pipet Important: Items will be reused. Do not throw anything away between activities. You will rinse items such as sand and gravel over a plastic bowl/container placed in the sink to separate the materials from each other; the bowl will prevent any excess materials from clogging the sink. You will rinse the syringe and aquarium tubing between activities and reuse them. You will also use the clay and Kool-Aid® drink mix for multiple activities, so be sure to save these materials. Permanent marker GROUNDWATER AND SURFACE WATER INTERACTIONS Safety Wear your safety goggles, gloves, and lab apron for the duration of this investigation. Read all instructions for these laboratory activities before beginning. Follow the instructions closely, and observe established laboratory safety practices, including the use of appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE). Do not eat, drink, or chew gum while performing these activities. Wash your hands with soap and water before and after performing each activity. Clean the work area with soap and water after completing the investigation. Keep pets and children away from lab materials and equipment. The clay may stain your clothing and hands, so be sure to use care and wash your hands thoroughly after handling this item, in particular. Make sure to wear your gloves and your lab apron when handling the clay. Preparation 1. Read through the activities. 2. Obtain all materials. 3. Find a large, open table to serve as the work area. Clean the work area. 4. Have a trash can and an accessible sink nearby. continued on next page 8 Carolina Distance Learning High Withdrawal and Recharge In the following activity, you will learn the importance of the water cycle and how withdrawal and recharge are two processes that continuously affect the environment but are not always in a balanced state. You will create a model where a drinking water reservoir and a layer of land with groundwater wells within it will be separated from each other by an impermeable layer. To help better understand the interconnectedness of the two water systems, you will determine different rates of withdrawal and recharge. How do you think the removal of water from the well will affect the water in the reservoir? Propose a hypothesis stating whether you think the water level in the reservoir will rise, drop, or remain the same, and describe your reasoning. Complete this information in the “Hypotheses” section of the Lab Worksheet. 1. Place a block of clay in the plastic container so it is one-third of the total distance away from one side of the container. This piece of clay will act as an impermeable retaining rock, so make sure to mold the clay so that it fits tightly on the sides and on the bottom of the container. 2. The smaller section will represent the reservoir and the larger section will be the aquifer, as seen in Figure 5. 3. Take one of the clear plastic tubes (not to be confused with the aquarium tubing), and cut it in half with a pair of scissors. These two cylinders will model wells drilled into the ground to reach the aquifer. 4. Add just enough sand to cover the bottom of the aquifer section, spreading the sand with your hands to level it out. 5. Place the two cut plastic tube pieces (wells) upright in the sand near the edge of the container in the aquifer farthest from the clay bar at random areas (see Figure 5). Ensure that each well is seated firmly against the bottom of the container. 6. Add another layer of sand, making sure to have the sand slightly higher up on one well than the other. 7. Form the next layer of the aquifer by adding enough gravel to cover the sand while creating a slight incline. Form the top of the incline around the wells. The gravel hill should slope downward toward the retaining wall (clay) and should be even with the top of the clay. 8. To represent precipitation, poke approximately 10 holes in the bottom of the foam cup and fill it with water (over the model), allowing the water to sprinkle onto the top of the slope, near the edge of the container behind the wells. Some water may leak into the reservoir. 9. Fill the smaller section (the reservoir) with water until the water level rises a few centimeters over the clay retaining wall. continued on next page www.carolina.com/distancelearning 9 ACTIVITY ACTIVITY 1 Figure 5. ACTIVITY ACTIVITY 1 continued 10. The top of the water table is represented by the height of the water in each of the wells. 11. Insert a straw into one of the wells until it touches the bottom. Hold your forefinger tightly over the open end of the straw to create a seal, and then remove the straw from the well. Use the permanent marker to draw a line to mark the top of the water level in the straw. This line represents the top of the water level in the aquifer. 12. Using a disposable pipet, drain this well by squeezing the round bulb of the pipet before putting it into the water, putting the pipet tip down into the water, and releasing the bulb to suck up the water. This water can be placed in a cup for disposal. Use the pipet to empty all the water in this well. (There may be a mixture of sand and water removed.) 13. As soon as you have removed all the water in the well, place the straw back into the bottom of the well and remove a water sample as you did in Step 11. Mark the top of the water column with a permanent marker as before. This represents the level of water in the well after a period of high withdrawal. Record your observations in the “Observations/Data Tables” section of the Lab Worksheet. 14. Wait 2 minutes and observe what happens to the drained well. Measure the water level again using the straw and permanent marker, and note if the height of the water table has changed in the “Observations/Data Tables” section of the Lab Worksheet. Has the height of the water table decreased or increased? Take a photograph, zooming in on the markings on your straw to show how much the water level has changed. Upload this to the “Photographs” section of the Lab Worksheet. 15. If needed, refill the reservoir with water until the water level rises a few centimeters over the retaining wall (as in Step 9). 16. Repeat Steps 11–14 using the other well. ACTIVITY 2 Point Source Pollution For this activity, you will create a model of point source pollution: a large industrial plant is disposing of its waste materials through a discharge pipe into a drinking water reservoir. You will see how these pollutants play a role within the water cycle and if an impermeable layer has an effect in blocking contamination of the groundwater. Do you think that the polluted water from the reservoir will enter the groundwater supply? Propose a hypothesis stating what you think will happen, and describe your reasoning. Complete this information in the “Hypotheses” section of the Lab Worksheet. 1. If the water from the reservoir in Activity 1 has a large amount of sand in it, pour it into a bowl and remove any excess sand from the reservoir. Do your best to let only water drain from the aquifer section, keeping all other materials (clay, sand, gravel, and tubes) in place. continued on next page 10 Carolina Distance Learning 2. Take one of the thinner, flexible aquarium tubes and cut it in half. This will act as a discharge pipe from an industrial plant. 3. Tape the aquarium tube half to the inside of the plastic container in the reservoir, making sure the opening is not touching the bottom of the container. 4. Fill the reservoir with clean water until it is just above the top of the clay. 5. Take a cupful of water and pour a small amount of Kool-Aid® drink mix into it (just enough for the water to change color). Mix well. This will represent the waste (pollutant). 6. Use the 10-mL syringe to suck up the waste. 7. Attach the end of the syringe to the aquarium tube, and inject the waste into the aquarium tubing (discharge pipe) you created. 8. Observe and record what happens to the water in the reservoir as you pump the waste into the discharge pipe in the “Observations/ Data Tables” section of the Lab Worksheet. 9. Next, insert a straw into one of the wells until it touches the bottom. Hold your forefinger tightly over the open end of the straw to create a seal, and then remove the straw from the well (as in Activity 1) to see if the polluted water has made its way into the groundwater supply. 10. To verify, wait 1 minute and repeat Step 9; then wait another minute and repeat the step again. 11. Take a photograph of your model with your straw in the picture to help show if there is any pollution occurring in the groundwater supply. Upload this to the “Photographs” section of the Lab Worksheet. 12. After you have completed this activity, obtain a medium- to large-size plastic bowl/container. Take a handful of the gravel and sand mixture. Rinse water through it, separating the gravel (in your hand) from the sand and water mixture (now in the bowl). Place the gravel on a paper towel to the side; let the excess water drain into the bowl, either in the sink or outside on the ground, being careful to retain as much sand as possible in the bowl. Reuse the sand and gravel for Activity 3. If weather permits, this step can be done outside for easier cleanup. ACTIVITY 3 Non-Point Source Pollution In this activity, you will see the effects on drinking water in two locations: • a house on a hill, where drinking water comes from a well confined under an impermeable layer • a house located downhill by a pond, where drinking water comes from a well in a permeable layer All the land between the two houses is fertilized each year, and both homeowners want to know the effects that this potential pollutant (fertilizer) has on their water source in the event of runoff from a rain event. Hypothesize how adding fertilizer to this new model will affect the other components of the model. Describe your reasoning. In your continued on next page www.carolina.com/distancelearning 11 ACTIVITY ACTIVITY 3 continued hypothesis, you should consider the following: 1) the groundwater, 2) the pond water, and 3) the drinking water reservoir. Complete this information in the “Hypotheses” section of the Lab Worksheet. 1. Take the bar of clay from the previous activity, and flatten it out as much as possible, making an approximate 6 × 6 cm square. 2. Cut the remaining aquarium tube in half, taping one piece to the inside (on a short side) of the plastic container, midway down. Tape the other half of the aquarium tube opposite the previous one and at the same depth in the plastic container. These tubes represent wells (see Figure 6). 3. Choose one side of the container, and fill it with sand to a depth slightly higher than the bottom of the well, as shown in Figure 7. 4. On the other side, make a slope of sand a few centimeters higher as you continue placing sand throughout the container. Supplement this layer with a layer of gravel on top, continuing the sloped approach (see Figure 8). 5. Place the flattened piece of clay on top of the uphill side, and mold the clay so that it fits tightly around the well (see Figure 9). This will act as an impermeable layer. 6. Top the model with a thin layer of sand, continuing with the sloped approach. 7. In the sand/gravel mixture at the bottom of the hill, dig a small circular hole. Using a plastic cup from the equipment set, pour water into the hole to represent a pond (see Figure 10). 8. Take the opened Kool-Aid® drink mix packet and sprinkle the remaining contents along the surface of the sloped land. This will act as fertilizer on the landscape. 9. Put water (without Kool-Aid® drink mix) in the foam cup, and shake the cup along the land to simulate rain. Observe what happens to the fertilizer and how it affects both the continued on next page 12 Carolina Distance Learning Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. groundwater and pond water (by tracking the now-colored water), and record your observations in the “Observations/Data Tables” section of the Lab Worksheet. 10. Wait 30 seconds, and then use the 10-mL syringe to pump water out from the well that is not surrounded by the impermeable clay layer. Observe the color of the water that came out of the well along with the pond water color. (Some sediment may be sucked into the syringe during this step). Record your observations in the “Observations/Data Tables” section of the Lab Worksheet. Take a photograph of your model with the syringe in the picture to show the color of the water. Upload this to the “Photographs” section of the Lab Worksheet. 11. Now use the syringe to draw water from the uphill well that is confined by an impermeable layer. Observe the color of the water that came from this well. (Some sediment may be sucked into the syringe during this step). Record your observations in the “Observations/Data Tables” section of the Lab Worksheet. Submission Submit the following two documents to Waypoint for grading: • Completed Lab Worksheet • Completed report (using the Lab Report Template) Disposal and Cleanup 1. Rinse and dry the lab equipment from the equipment kit, and return the materials to your equipment kit. 2. Dispose of any materials from the materials kit in the household trash. 3. Sanitize the work space, and wash your hands thoroughly. www.carolina.com/distancelearning 13 ACTIVITY Lab Worksheet 14 Carolina Distance Learning Hypotheses Activity 1. Activity 2. Observations Activity 1. Activity 2. Activity 3. Photographs Activity 1. Activity 2. Activity 3. Activity 3. www.carolina.com/distancelearning 15 Now copy and paste your answers into the Lab Report Template provided. Include the photographs. You may wish to make minor edits to enhance the flow of your resulting lab report. Discussion 5. Based on the results of each activity, explain whether you accepted or rejected your hypotheses and why. 6. What important information have you learned from this lab? Use at least one outside source (scholarly for full credit) to answer this question. Cite the source using APA format. Answers should be 5–7 sentences in length. 7. What challenges did you encounter when doing this lab? Name at least one. 8. How might a scientist use the information in this lab to identify and correct water issues in your community? Literature Cited 9. List the references you used to answer these lab questions. (Use APA format, and alphabetize by the last name.) Lab Questions Please answer the following entirely in your own words and in complete sentences: Introduction 1. Background—What is important to know about the topic of this lab? Use at least one outside source (other than course materials) to answer this question. Cite the source using APA format. Answers should be 5–7 sentences in length. 2. Outcomes—What is the main purpose of this lab? 3. Hypotheses—What were your hypotheses for each of the activities in this lab? Identify each hypothesis clearly, and explain your reasoning. Materials and Methods 4. Using your own words, briefly describe what materials and methods you used in each of the activities. Your answer should be sufficiently detailed so that someone reading it would be able to replicate what you did. Explain any measurements you made. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Groundwater and Surface Water Interactions Investigation Manual www.carolina.com/distancelearning 866.332.4478 Carolina Biological Supply Company: Groundwater and Surface Water Interactions InvestigationManualENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Made ADA compliant by NetCentric Technologies using the CommonLook® softwareKeyPersonal protective equipment (PPE)gogglesglovesapronfollow link to videophotograph results and submitstopwatch requiredwarning corrosion flammable toxic environment health hazardGROUNDWATER AND SURFACE WATER INTERACTIONS Overview Clean drinking water is vital for all human life. In this lab, students will learn how freshwater sources interact through the natural processes of the hydrosphere (all the water on the planet) and what happens to drinking water supplies when our planet becomes altered by human activities. Students will design models of different scenarios that affect the earth’s surface water and groundwater. The models will demonstrate overconsumption and drought situations, along with water conditions influenced by point and non-point source pollution, to examine human-induced effects on the earth’s water cycle. Outcomes• Describe the importance of freshwater availability to the health of human populations.• Construct multiple groundwater and surface water models and analyze different ways the water can become contaminated.• Distinguish between point and non-point pollution sources and explain the impact of each.• Recognize the interconnectedness of groundwater and surface water in the environment.Time RequirementsPreparation ……………………………………………………………15 minutes Activity 1: High Withdrawal and Recharge …………………45 minutes Activity 2: Point Source Pollution ……………………………..15 minutes Activity 3: Non-Point Source Pollution ………………………45 minutes2 Carolina Distance LearningTable of Contents2 Overview 2 Outcomes2 Time Requirements3 Background7 Materials8 Safety8 Preparation9 Activity 110 Activity 211 Activity 313 Submission 13 Disposal and Cleanup14 Lab Worksheet15 Lab Questions BackgroundThe hydrosphere encompasses all the water on the planet. It includes freshwater and saltwater; liquid, solid, and vapor; and water that is both above ground and underground. All of these different sources of water interact and transform into one another through processes within the biogeochemical cycle known as the hydrological or water cycle (see Figure 1). Water falls to the earth as precipitation and runs off the land’s surface, infiltrates the ground, or evaporates from surface waters such as oceans, lakes, and rivers. The evaporated water vapor condenses in the clouds and falls to the earth over time as precipitation. Then the process begins again. The water that has infiltrated the ground, known as groundwater, is located in and below the water table, which is the top layer of the soil in which groundwater fills most of the pores. In the water table, water is able to enter the ground through unsaturated surface soil voids, filling the soil below this level due to natural gravitational pull. With this natural movement of water, the hydrosphere continuously cycles all phases of water to all parts of the earth. While water encompasses approximately 70% of Earth’s surface, freshwater, which accounts for only 3% of Earth’s water, is the only type of water that is readily accessible for human consumption. However, of that 3%, just under 1% is readily accessible, with the remaining water being held in Earth’s icy regions, which include glaciers and polar ice caps. This is known as the cryosphere, or the frozen portion of the hydrosphere (see Figure 2).continued on next pagewww.carolina.com/distancelearning 3Figure 1. GROUNDWATER AND SURFACE WATER INTERACTIONS Background continuedGroundwater Freshwater available for human use is made up of surface water and groundwater. When precipitation falls from the atmosphere to the earth, it becomes part of the environment by either washing across the land and into bodies of water or by percolating through the surface of the soil. Here, it can be taken up by plants or filtered deep into the ground. In the latter case, this surface water enters the ground through areas known as recharge zones. Water enters these unsaturated zones on the surface of the land by the natural pull of gravity. The porosity of a material is a measure of the void spaces in the rocks and soil, and the ability of water to pass through those void spaces is known as permeability. This water now enters the groundwater system and saturates the ground beneath. People rely on these zones to recharge aquifers. Through the use of wells, people can supply water to their homes.Deeper into the ground, multiple layers of unsaturated and saturated soil of many different pore sizes and material types exist. Some of these layers are permeable, whereas others are impermeable, which means that water cannot easily pass through them. Many types of ground consist of permeable materials, like rocky sediment, fine sand, or soil. Others are made of less permeable materials that impede the percolation of water, such as claylike dirt, thicker sand, or man-made structures such as paved streets and sidewalks. The types of material that make up the consistency of the ground impacts the ability to access the groundwater. Groundwater can sometimes be accessed by pumping wells placed in aquifers. Aquifers are underground basins from which water can be removed at a reasonable rate, with the most ideal aquifers containing many pore spaces for water storage. However, the size, depth, and amount of water within an aquifer can vary greatly, making the process of extracting groundwater from an aquifer variable as well. While most of Earth’s accessible freshwater is held in the ground, much of it is too deep for humans to access. Surface WaterThe small amount of remaining freshwater accessible for human use is made up of all the surface water from lakes, rivers, and ponds as well as the water vapor in the atmosphere (see Figure 2). There are many regions that don’t have access to groundwater sources and must rely on reservoirs, such as natural and man-made lakes, as a source of drinking water. With surface water making up a small continued on next page4 Carolina Distance Learning 67% Saltwater 30% Land 2% Frozen Water 1% Groundwater/Surface Water/ AtmosphereFigure 2. percentage of freshwater worldwide, events such as droughts or excessive withdrawal from reservoirs within these areas can cause rapid depletion of vital water for highly populated, metropolitan areas that rely on these sources of drinking water. Also, many human-induced factors can lead to inaccessible freshwater. Impervious surfaces such as roads, parking lots, and buildings can limit the quality of accessible water by creating a surface for the runoff of pollutants into nearby bodies of water. Additionally, most water that is withdrawn from a waterway or aquifer is returned to the environment, but some is taken up by plants and animals or lost to evaporation, adding another source of inaccessible freshwater for humans. To understand how surface water and groundwater affect each other, let’s investigate some of these same scenarios but from a different perspective. For instance, impervious surfaces not only negatively affect the quality of surface water, but they can also block access to and pollute groundwater sources. Also, when excessive water is withdrawn from a groundwater well that is pumping water stored in the water table, surface water levels can be reduced greatly and can ruin the quality of the water. Similarly, pumping water from a freshwater reservoir can lower groundwater levels and possibly cause contamination.On the positive side, if there is sufficient rainfall in an environment, the water could overflow the land, feeding into marshes, rivers, or lakes. In contrast, if surface water receives excess rainfall, it could run onto and infiltrate the land to become groundwater. All in all, to truly understand the availability of water in a region, recognizing the interconnectedness of groundwater and surface water is of vital importance. Human-Induced Actions that Affect the Water CycleThere are many ways to limit or contaminate the freshwater available to humans. The overload of substances that are harmful to the environment, known as pollution, is a major issue affecting today’s freshwater supply. It is easier to determine the origin of certain pollutants than others; in turn, it is easier to prevent certain pollutants from occurring in the future than others. Point source pollution is pollution that can be tracked to one specific source. This source of pollution is identifiable and able to be limited if proper action is taken to control the pollutant source. A pipe from a wastewater treatment plant discharging waste into a water source (see Figure 3) and a person dumping gasoline into a water supply (such as a lake) continued on next pagewww.carolina.com/distancelearning 5Figure 3. GROUNDWATER AND SURFACE WATER INTERACTIONS Background continuedare examples of point source pollution. Many restrictions have been put in place to control waste from industries and wastewater treatment plants, but enforcing them is not an easy task. If the origin of a pollutant is unknown, it may be difficult to determine how it entered the freshwater supply. Non-point source pollutionusually occurs from the movement of pollutants through a system to a different area, making its origins much harder to discover. When water moves toxic chemicals—such as fertilizers and pesticides, oil, and gasolines—over the ground or through an aquatic system such as a river or stream, the pollutants can travel large distances. Figure 4 shows an example of this movement of polluted water over an impermeable surface (road) into the sewer system. All these types of pollutants can start in one region and end up many miles away, making this type of pollution very difficult to prevent. Non-point source pollution is also the most prevalent type in the environment, making it extremely important to monitor. While pollution is a big part of what limits our available freshwater resources, there are also issues with overwithdrawal and overconsumption from aquifers and reservoirs. With very few limits set on water usage in most developed countries, people worldwide use water at a rate that is faster than it is able to be replenished in the environment. Although water is recycled through precipitation, evaporation, and runoff in the water cycle, there is a need for limits on water usage to ensure that sufficient water supplies are accessible. In a model known as the water budget, the inputs, outputs, and storage of water in the environment are calculated and balanced to ensure equal recycling.However, with droughts and excessive withdrawals occurring in many areas around the world, water usage must be monitored and lowered to keep the budget balanced. In the United States, each person uses an average of 150 gallons of water per day; in multiple developing countries, the average person uses fewer than 10 gallons of water per day. Of the large amount of water that is used by the United States, only 13% is used by households. The other 87% is used by industry and for agriculture. Even though there is only a small percentage of freshwater readily available for human consumption around the world, it is still being used at a rate that can lead to dangerously low levels in the near future.Through the following activities, you will create groundwater and surface water models to demonstrate the impact of several important factors on drinking water. 6 Carolina Distance LearningFigure 4. www.carolina.com/distancelearning 7MaterialsNeeded from the materials kit:Sand, 4 cupsGravel, 2 cupsClay, ¼-pound blue bar2 Pieces aquarium tubingKool-Aid® drink mix packetPlastic container, 64 ouncesPlastic cupNeeded from the equipment kit:Reorder Information: Replacement supplies for the Groundwater and Surface Water Interactions investigation can be ordered from Carolina Biological Supply Company, item number 580817. Call: 800.334.5551 to order.Needed but not supplied:• Water• Tape• Plastic bowl/container• Scissors• Paper towels• Stopwatch (or a cell phone with a timer)• Camera (or cell phone capable of taking photographs)Syringe, 10 mL3 Straws2 Plastic tubesFoam cupDisposable pipetImportant: Items will be reused. Do not throw anything away between activities. You will rinse items such as sand and gravel over a plastic bowl/container placed in the sink to separate the materials from each other; the bowl will prevent any excess materials from clogging the sink. You will rinse the syringe and aquarium tubing between activities and reuse them. You will also use the clay and Kool-Aid® drink mix for multiple activities, so be sure to save these materials. Permanent marker GROUNDWATER AND SURFACE WATER INTERACTIONS SafetyWear your safety goggles, gloves, and lab apron for the duration of this investigation.Read all instructions for these laboratory activ-ities before beginning. Follow the instructions closely, and observe established laboratory safety practices, including the use of appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE).Do not eat, drink, or chew gum while performing these activities. Wash your hands with soap and water before and after performing each activity. Clean the work area with soap and water after completing the investigation. Keep pets and children away from lab materials and equipment.The clay may stain your clothing and hands, so be sure to use care and wash your hands thoroughly after handling this item, in partic-ular. Make sure to wear your gloves and your lab apron when handling the clay.Preparation1. Read through the activities.2. Obtain all materials.3. Find a large, open table to serve as the work area. Clean the work area.4. Have a trash can and an accessible sink nearby.continued on next page8 Carolina Distance Learning High Withdrawal and Recharge In the following activity, you will learn the importance of the water cycle and how withdrawal and recharge are two processes that continuously affect the environment but are not always in a balanced state. You will create a model where a drinking water reservoir and a layer of land with ground-water wells within it will be separated from each other by an impermeable layer. To help better understand the interconnectedness of the two water systems, you will determine different rates of withdrawal and recharge.How do you think the removal of water from the well will affect the water in the reservoir? Propose a hypothesis stating whether you think the water level in the reservoir will rise, drop, or remain the same, and describe your reasoning. Complete this information in the “Hypotheses” section of the Lab Worksheet. 1. Place a block of clay in the plastic container so it is one-third of the total distance away from one side of the container. This piece of clay will act as an impermeable retaining rock, so make sure to mold the clay so that it fits tightly on the sides and on the bottom of the container.2. The smaller section will represent the reservoir and the larger section will be the aquifer, as seen in Figure 5.3. Take one of the clear plastic tubes (not to be confused with the aquarium tubing), and cut it in half with a pair of scissors. These two cylinders will model wells drilled into the ground to reach the aquifer. 4. Add just enough sand to cover the bottom of the aquifer section, spreading the sand with your hands to level it out.5. Place the two cut plastic tube pieces (wells) upright in the sand near the edge of the container in the aquifer farthest from the clay bar at random areas (see Figure 5). Ensure that each well is seated firmly against the bottom of the container.6. Add another layer of sand, making sure to have the sand slightly higher up on one well than the other. 7. Form the next layer of the aquifer by adding enough gravel to cover the sand while creat-ing a slight incline. Form the top of the incline around the wells. The gravel hill should slope downward toward the retaining wall (clay) and should be even with the top of the clay. 8. To represent precipitation, poke approximately 10 holes in the bottom of the foam cup and fill it with water (over the model), allowing the water to sprinkle onto the top of the slope, near the edge of the container behind the wells. Some water may leak into the reservoir.9. Fill the smaller section (the reservoir) with water until the water level rises a few centimeters over the clay retaining wall.continued on next pagewww.carolina.com/distancelearning 9www.carolina.com/distancelearning 9ACTIVITYACTIVITY 1Figure 5. ACTIVITYACTIVITY 1 continued10. The top of the water table is represented by the height of the water in each of the wells.11. Insert a straw into one of the wells until it touches the bottom. Hold your forefinger tightly over the open end of the straw to create a seal, and then remove the straw from the well. Use the permanent marker to draw a line to mark the top of the water level in the straw. This line represents the top of the water level in the aquifer.12. Using a disposable pipet, drain this well by squeezing the round bulb of the pipet before putting it into the water, putting the pipet tip down into the water, and releasing the bulb to suck up the water. This water can be placed in a cup for disposal. Use the pipet to empty all the water in this well. (There may be a mixture of sand and water removed.)13. As soon as you have removed all the water in the well, place the straw back into the bottom of the well and remove a water sample as you did in Step 11. Mark the top of the water column with a permanent marker as before. This represents the level of water in the well after a period of high withdrawal. Record your observations in the “Observations/Data Tables” section of the Lab Worksheet.14. Wait 2 minutes and observe what happens to the drained well. Measure the water level again using the straw and permanent marker, and note if the height of the water table has changed in the “Observations/Data Tables” section of the Lab Worksheet. Has the height of the water table decreased or increased? Take a photograph, zooming in on the markings on your straw to show how much the water level has changed. Upload this to the “Photographs” section of the Lab Worksheet.15. If needed, refill the reservoir with water until the water level rises a few centimeters over the retaining wall (as in Step 9). 16. Repeat Steps 11–14 using the other well.ACTIVITY 2Point Source Pollution For this activity, you will create a model of point source pollution: a large industrial plant is disposing of its waste materials through a discharge pipe into a drinking water reservoir. You will see how these pollutants play a role within the water cycle and if an impermeable layer has an effect in blocking contamination of the groundwater. Do you think that the polluted water from the reservoir will enter the groundwater supply? Propose a hypothesis stating what you think will happen, and describe your reasoning. Complete this information in the “Hypotheses” section of the Lab Worksheet.1. If the water from the reservoir in Activity 1 has a large amount of sand in it, pour it into a bowl and remove any excess sand from the reservoir. Do your best to let only water drain from the aquifer section, keeping all other materials (clay, sand, gravel, and tubes) in place. continued on next page10 Carolina Distance Learning 2. Take one of the thinner, flexible aquarium tubes and cut it in half. This will act as a discharge pipe from an industrial plant. 3. Tape the aquarium tube half to the inside of the plastic container in the reservoir, making sure the opening is not touching the bottom of the container.4. Fill the reservoir with clean water until it is just above the top of the clay. 5. Take a cupful of water and pour a small amount of Kool-Aid® drink mix into it (just enough for the water to change color). Mix well. This will represent the waste (pollutant).6. Use the 10-mL syringe to suck up the waste. 7. Attach the end of the syringe to the aquarium tube, and inject the waste into the aquarium tubing (discharge pipe) you created. 8. Observe and record what happens to the water in the reservoir as you pump the waste into the discharge pipe in the “Observations/Data Tables” section of the Lab Worksheet.9. Next, insert a straw into one of the wells until it touches the bottom. Hold your forefinger tightly over the open end of the straw to create a seal, and then remove the straw from the well (as in Activity 1) to see if the polluted water has made its way into the groundwater supply. 10. To verify, wait 1 minute and repeat Step 9; then wait another minute and repeat the step again.11. Take a photograph of your model with your straw in the picture to help show if there is any pollution occurring in the groundwater supply. Upload this to the “Photographs” section of the Lab Worksheet.12. After you have completed this activity, obtain a medium- to large-size plastic bowl/container. Take a handful of the gravel and sand mixture. Rinse water through it, separating the gravel (in your hand) from the sand and water mixture (now in the bowl). Place the gravel on a paper towel to the side; let the excess water drain into the bowl, either in the sink or outside on the ground, being careful to retain as much sand as possible in the bowl. Reuse the sand and gravel for Activity 3. If weather permits, this step can be done outside for easier cleanup.ACTIVITY 3Non-Point Source Pollution In this activity, you will see the effects on drinking water in two locations: • a house on a hill, where drinking water comes from a well confined under an impermeable layer • a house located downhill by a pond, where drinking water comes from a well in a permeable layer All the land between the two houses is fertilized each year, and both homeowners want to know the effects that this potential pollutant (fertilizer) has on their water source in the event of runoff from a rain event.Hypothesize how adding fertilizer to this new model will affect the other components of the model. Describe your reasoning. In your continued on next pagewww.carolina.com/distancelearning 11 ACTIVITYACTIVITY 3 continuedhypothesis, you should consider the following: 1) the groundwater, 2) the pond water, and 3) the drinking water reservoir. Complete this information in the “Hypotheses” section of the Lab Worksheet.1. Take the bar of clay from the previous activity, and flatten it out as much as possible, making an approximate 6 × 6 cm square. 2. Cut the remaining aquarium tube in half, taping one piece to the inside (on a short side) of the plastic container, midway down. Tape the other half of the aquarium tube opposite the previous one and at the same depth in the plastic container. These tubes represent wells (see Figure 6).3. Choose one side of the container, and fill it with sand to a depth slightly higher than the bottom of the well, as shown in Figure 7.4. On the other side, make a slope of sand a few centimeters higher as you continue placing sand throughout the container. Supplement this layer with a layer of gravel on top, continuing the sloped approach (see Figure 8).5. Place the flattened piece of clay on top of the uphill side, and mold the clay so that it fits tightly around the well (see Figure 9). This will act as an impermeable layer.6. Top the model with a thin layer of sand, continuing with the sloped approach.7. In the sand/gravel mixture at the bottom of the hill, dig a small circular hole. Using a plastic cup from the equipment set, pour water into the hole to represent a pond (see Figure 10).8. Take the opened Kool-Aid® drink mix packet and sprinkle the remaining contents along the surface of the sloped land. This will act as fertilizer on the landscape. 9. Put water (without Kool-Aid® drink mix) in the foam cup, and shake the cup along the land to simulate rain. Observe what happens to the fertilizer and how it affects both the continued on next page12 Carolina Distance LearningFigure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. groundwater and pond water (by tracking the now-colored water), and record your observations in the “Observations/Data Tables” section of the Lab Worksheet. 10. Wait 30 seconds, and then use the 10-mL syringe to pump water out from the well that is not surrounded by the impermeable clay layer. Observe the color of the water that came out of the well along with the pond water color. (Some sediment may be sucked into the syringe during this step). Record your observations in the “Observations/Data Tables” section of the Lab Worksheet. Take a photograph of your model with the syringe in the picture to show the color of the water. Upload this to the “Photographs” section of the Lab Worksheet.11. Now use the syringe to draw water from the uphill well that is confined by an impermeable layer. Observe the color of the water that came from this well. (Some sediment may be sucked into the syringe during this step). Record your observations in the “Observations/Data Tables” section of the Lab Worksheet.Submission Submit the following two documents to Waypoint for grading:• Completed Lab Worksheet • Completed report (using the Lab Report Template)Disposal and Cleanup1. Rinse and dry the lab equipment from the equipment kit, and return the materials to your equipment kit.2. Dispose of any materials from the materials kit in the household trash.3. Sanitize the work space, and wash your hands thoroughly.www.carolina.com/distancelearning 13 ACTIVITYLab Worksheet14 Carolina Distance LearningHypotheses Activity 1.Activity 2.Observations Activity 1. Activity 2.Activity 3.Photographs Activity 1. Activity 2.Activity 3.Activity 3. www.carolina.com/distancelearning 15Now copy and paste your answers into the Lab Report Template provided. Include thephotographs. You may wish to make minor edits to enhance the flow of your resulting lab report.Discussion 5. Based on the results of each activity, explain whether you accepted or rejected your hypotheses and why. 6. What important information have you learned from this lab? Use at least one outside source (scholarly for full credit) to answer this question. Cite the source using APA format. Answers should be 5–7 sentences in length.7. What challenges did you encounter when doing this lab? Name at least one.8. How might a scientist use the information in this lab to identify and correct water issues in your community?Literature Cited9. List the references you used to answer these lab questions. (Use APA format, and alphabetize by the last name.)Lab QuestionsPlease answer the following entirely in your own words and in complete sentences: Introduction1. Background—What is important to know about the topic of this lab? Use at least one outside source (other than course materials) to answer this question. Cite the source using APA format. Answers should be 5–7 sentences in length.2. Outcomes—What is the main purpose of this lab?3. Hypotheses—What were your hypotheses for each of the activities in this lab? Identify each hypothesis clearly, and explain your reasoning. Materials and Methods4. Using your own words, briefly describe what materials and methods you used in each of the activities. Your answer should be sufficiently detailed so that someone reading it would be able to replicate what you did. Explain any measurements you made. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Groundwater and Surface Water Interactions Investigation Manualwww.carolina.com/distancelearning 866.332.4478Carolina Biological Supply Companywww.carolina.com • 800.334.5551©2018 Carolina Biological Supply CompanyCB781621806 ASH_V2.1 ACTIVITY Lab Worksheet Hypotheses Activity 1. Activity 2. Observations Activity 1. Activity 2. Activity 3. Activity 3. Photographs Activity 1. Activity 2. Activity 3. Lab Questions Please answer the following entirely in your own words and in complete sentences: Introduction 1. Background—What is important to know about the topic of this lab? Use at least one outside source (other than course materials) to answer this question. Cite the source using APA format. Answers should be 5–7 sentences in length. [Write your answers here] 2. Outcomes—What was the main purpose of this lab? [Write your answers here] 3. Hypotheses—What were your hypotheses for the activities of this lab? Identify each hypothesis clearly, and explain your reasoning. [Write your answers here] Materials and Methods 4. Using your own words, briefly describe what materials and methods you used in each of the activities. Your answer should be sufficiently detailed so that someone reading it would be able to replicate what you did. Explain any measurements you made. [Write your answers here] Discussion 5. Based upon the results of each activity, explain whether you accepted or rejected your hypotheses and why. [Write your answers here] 6. What important information have you learned from this lab? Use at least one outside source (scholarly for full credit) to answer this question. Cite the source using APA format. Answers should be 5–7 sentences in length. [Write your answers here] 7. What challenges did you encounter when doing this lab? Name at least one. [Write your answers here] 8. How might a scientist use the information in this lab to identify and correct water issues in your community? [Write your answers here] Literature Cited 9. List the references you used to answer these questions. (Use APA format, and alphabetize by the last name.) [Write your answers here] LAB REPORT TEMPLATE: Running head: NAME OF LAB1Name of LabYour NameSCI 207: Our Dependence Upon the EnvironmentInstructor’s NameDate Running head: NAME OF LAB2*This template will enable you to turn your lab question responses into a polished Lab Report. Simply copy paste your answers to the lab questions, as well as all data tables, graphs, and photographs, in the locations indicated. Before you submit your Lab Report, it is recommended that you run it through Turnitin, using the student folder, to ensure protection from accidental plagiarism. Please delete this purple text before submitting your report. Name of LabIntroduction Copy and paste your response to Question One here.Copy and paste your response to Question Two here.Copy and paste your response to Question Three here.Materials and MethodsCopy and paste your response to Question Four here.ResultsCopy and paste your completed Data Tables here. Copy and paste any Graphs here. Include a numbered figure caption below it, in APA format.Copy and paste your Photographs here, in the order they were taken in the lab. Include numbered figure captions below them, in APA format.DiscussionCopy and paste your response to Question Five here. Copy and paste your response to Question Six here.Copy and paste your response to Question Seven here.Copy and paste your response to Question Eight here. ReferencesCopy and paste your response to Question Nine here. HAS TO BE THE WAY I HAVE THERE SO I WILL PUT AN A PAPER : ACTIVITY Lab Worksheet Hypotheses Activity 1. Activity 2. Observations Activity 1. Activity 2. Activity 3. Activity 3. Photographs Activity 1. Activity 2. Activity 3. Lab Questions Please answer the following entirely in your own words and in complete sentences: Introduction 1. Background—What is important to know about the topic of this lab? Use at least one outside source (other than course materials) to answer this question. Cite the source using APA format. Answers should be 5–7 sentences in length. [Write your answers here] 2. Outcomes—What was the main purpose of this lab? [Write your answers here] 3. Hypotheses—What were your hypotheses for the activities of this lab? Identify each hypothesis clearly, and explain your reasoning. [Write your answers here] Materials and Methods 4. Using your own words, briefly describe what materials and methods you used in each of the activities. Your answer should be sufficiently detailed so that someone reading it would be able to replicate what you did. Explain any measurements you made. [Write your answers here] Discussion 5. Based upon the results of each activity, explain whether you accepted or rejected your hypotheses and why. [Write your answers here] 6. What important information have you learned from this lab? Use at least one outside source (scholarly for full credit) to answer this question. Cite the source using APA format. Answers should be 5–7 sentences in length. [Write your answers here] 7. What challenges did you encounter when doing this lab? Name at least one. [Write your answers here] 8. How might a scientist use the information in this lab to identify and correct water issues in your community? [Write your answers here] Literature Cited 9. List the references you used to answer these questions. (Use APA format, and alphabetize by the last name.) [Write your answers here]

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