Environmental science

Question 1 .

The first step in any epidemiological investigation is to ____.


understand causation establish risk factors track trends and determine if particular diseases are increasing or decreasing in the population describe the population demographically by age, race, sex, education, and other relevant indicators

Question 2 .

One of the important concepts from the Nuremberg Code is that of ____, which means that the subject understands the scope of the study and can make an informed decision to participate.


informed consent voluntary consent beneficence primary agent

Question 3 .

A disease or condition that affects a greater than expected (normal) number of individuals within a population, community, or region at the same time is referred to as an ____.


epidemic endemic outbreak epidemic threshold

Question 4 .

The normal occurrence of a disease or condition common to persons within a localized area is known as a(n) ____.


transmission pandemic endemic epidemic

Question 5 .

Reproductive health studies ____.


the role of genetics in disease development the occurrence and risk factors for disease such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes that are slow to develop but span many years the distribution and risk factors for injuries, either accidental or intentional normal reproductive processes and problems that can occur including infertility, birth defects, and low birth weight

Question 6 .

The course of a disease, if left untreated, is referred to as ____.


transmission control measure natural history geographic pattern

Question 7 .

Physical, biological, social, cultural, and behaviors that influence health are known as ____.


risk factors health-related states agents determinants

Question 8 .

James Lind (1716-1794) observed the effect of time, place, weather, and diet on the spread of disease by ____.


comparing sick persons to well persons applying the germ theory to public health introducing randomization when conducting clinical trials applying the germ theory to hygiene practices

QUestion 9

The aspect of consistency means that ____.


an increasing amount of exposure increases the risk the association should be compatible with existing theory and knowledge the association is consistent when results are repeated in studies in different settings using different methods the findings agree with currently accepted understanding of pathological processes

QUestion 10

The modern epidemiologic triangle includes groups of populations, causative factors, and ____.


alternate explanations risk factors results coherence

Question 11

For chronic diseases, the time between exposure and symptoms is called the ____ period, which can range from a few months to many years.


latency incubation temporal plausibility

Question 12

Risk factors or exposures that we think might affect the outcome are known as ____.


indirect causes direct causes dependent variables independent variables

QUestion 13

Identifying diseases prior to the clinical stage means that prevention efforts can begin immediately. Because the disease is already present, this is an example of ____ prevention.


primary secondary tertiary quaternary

QUestion 14 The time between infection and clinical disease is referred to as a(n) ____.


a plausible period temporal period incubation period latency period

Question 15 .

A proportion measured over a period of time is known as a ____.


period prevalence prevalence proportion point prevalence rate

Question 16

The representation of a numerator as a fraction of a denominator is known as a(n) ____.


proportion rate incidence rate specific rate

Question 17 .

Prevalence equals ____.


incidence times duration of disease incidence divided by duration of disease incidence plus duration of disease incidence divided by duration of disease times 100

Question 18 .

While many people are used to hearing proportions represented as a percentage, many population samples in epidemiology are often presented per ____.


1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000

.Question 19 .

By definition, the disease or condition used to identify a case is determined by the ____.


hypothesis conclusion prevalence incidence

Question 20 .

A person in the population or study group identified as having the particular disease, health disorder, or condition under investigation is known as a ____.

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