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4.1 To help you prepare for your Cause and Effect essay on donating or selling organs, brainstorm general topics of interest and conduct an online inquiry as to possible causes and effects.

For example, you might have an interest on the effect of social media on children younger than thirteen years of age. You research young children in their tweens and discover that these individuals are more readily exposed to online interactive groups, such as Facebook, Twitter, or Web pages themed to attract a younger audience; this creates a root cause with the effect of having a large social network of friends.

This result becomes a new cause that leads to the effect of stronger Web-based communication skills, which leads to intuitive and up-to-date technology skills. This result leads to overuse of or possible Internet obsession, which results in decreased participation of afterschool activities, such as sports or music groups. This result leads to lack of focus on homework and a significant drop in academic performance, which results in poor quality of student work. The result is repeating the same grade level.

Now, create your own cause-effect chain based on your online inquiry. Make sure the cause-effect chain is logical, plausible, and realistic.

4.2 We are continuing to work towards our Cause and Effect essay on donating or selling organs. Watch the local news or go online and read news as presented through CNN, Google, or MSN News. Choose a current story or news event of interest. Create a list of causes for the story or event. Discuss at least three “whys” (the causes) that led to the event and three projected plausible results (the effects) from the event. Your reply should discuss a total of three causes and three effects. Support each cause and result with an explanation.

5.1 As you have learned from this week’s readings, a cause-effect chain argues that one thing leads to another (e.g., “Increasing levels of acidity in sea water are harming the oceans’ coral reefs.”). A causal cause and effect chain links causal claims together as links in a chain. Remember your argument is only as strong as the weakest link in your chain.

Summarize the causal cause and effect chain used by the writer in the article from The New York Times. Was the argument persuasive? Why or why not?

· What has caused the growth of the illegal sale of human organs in some countries, a concept unthinkable 100 years ago?

· What has caused the growth of selling human organs on the black market?

· What are the causes you have identified and will write about in your draft?

· What are the effects you have identified and will write about in your draft?

5.2  There is common wisdom that states, “Correlation is not causation.” Explain in your own words what this phrase means. Now, read the current draft of your cause and effect essay. Consider how you might revise your essay in light of this saying. Describe what revisions you might need to make to your essay to ensure that your argument is logical, plausible, and realistic and does not present an argument that is illogical, far-reaching, or unrealistic.

6.1 Use the following questions to develop ideas for your proposal.

· What do you think is the most significant problem regarding the sale of organs?

· Why do you think it is a problem?

· Who has the power to solve this problem?

· Why has it not been solved up to this point?

· How can the problem be solved?

· What are the benefits and costs related to your solution?

Using strategies for argumentation discussed previously in class, develop some arguments for your proposal that you could use for your skeptical audience. Refer to Chapter 7 in the textbook for additional information on rebuttals.

6.2 To whom will you address your proposal? This person (or group) will be skeptical of your views. Will it be a friend or family member with different beliefs and values related to health care and/or the human body? Are there individuals in the medical community who hold different values than you do? How about a politician or media figure?

What are their views on the issue of selling human organs, and what do they think should be done about it? Summarize the views of your skeptical audience as fairly and accurately as possible.

During the week, review your classmates’ summaries of their skeptical audiences’ views. Constructively offer feedback on their summaries. Were the summaries fair, or did they seem biased? How can you tell? Offer suggestions on how to revise their summaries.

7.1 Four important steps when composing a proposal include (1) convincing the audience that there is a problem that needs to be solved, (2) explaining what you want your audience to do about the problem, (3) acknowledging opposing viewpoints or steps to solving the problem and (4) justifying the action you are asking your audience to take. What strategies will you use for each step? What will make your content for each of these steps effective? Later in the week, review answers that your classmates have provided and provide feedback on their ideas.

7.2 Many people have either engaged in an argument that seemed unresolvable or witnessed such an argument between friends and family members. Consider one of these arguments you have either experienced or witnessed, and then identify the fallacies that were expressed during this discussion or argument.

Note how the fallacies prevented the discussion from being resolved. What did you learn about fallacies from this experience that you can apply to your proposal essay? How might fallacies like these be avoided in proposal writing?

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