English

Sixth Edition

Kitty O. Locker Stephen Kyo Kaczmarek

ISBN 978-0-07-340326-7 MHID 0-07-340326-1

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We listened to the increasing demand for more fexibility with teaching materials. This modular format was created to cater to the way in which instructors teach, and students learn.

Through the author’s modular approach, instructors have the freedom to customize their text and assignments piece-by-piece. By breaking chapters into more manageable, topic-focused sections, instructors have the fexibility to cover and assign the content they want, in the or- der they want to better suit their individual teaching styles.

Instead of losing students in chapters that are long, unspecifc, or out of order, with this book students move toward an understanding of the foundations and piece together the critical skills needed to become suc- cessful communicators in the Business Communication feld.

www.mhhe.com/lockerbcs6e

www.mhhe.comwww.domorenow.com

Why 30 ModuLar Chapters?

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Module 1 Sentence Fragments 18

Module 2 Comma Splices 36

Module 3 Using Idioms 58

Module 4 Using Spell and Grammar Checkers 72

Module 5 Active and Passive Voice 86

Module 6 It’s/Its 100

Module 7 Singular and Plural Possessives 111

Module 8 Plurals and Possessives 122

Module 9 Making Subjects and Verbs Agree 141

Module 10 Dangling Modifers 163

Module 11 Parallel Structure 186

Module 12 Expressing Personality 215

Module 13 Making Nouns and Pronouns Agree 235

Module 14 Matters on Which Experts Disagree 255

Module 15 Run-On Sentences 269

Module 16 Commas in Lists 285

Module 17 Combining Sentences 295

Module 18 Delivering Criticism 311

Module 19 Hyphens and Dashes 323

Module 20 Choosing Levels of Formality 339

Module 21 Mixing Verb Tenses 357

Module 22 Using MLA Style 375

Module 23 Being Concise 390

Module 24 Improving Paragraphs 414

Module 25 Writing Subject Lines and Headings 435

Module 26 Using Details 448

Module 27 Proofreading 472

Module 28 Using You and I 489

Module 29 Using a Dictionary 506

Module 30 Who/Whom and I/Me 513

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Module 1 Sentence Fragments 18

Module 2 Comma Splices 36

Module 3 Using Idioms 58

Module 4 Using Spell and Grammar Checkers 72

Module 5 Active and Passive Voice 86

Module 6 It’s/Its 100

Module 7 Singular and Plural Possessives 111

Module 8 Plurals and Possessives 122

Module 9 Making Subjects and Verbs Agree 141

Module 10 Dangling Modifers 163

Module 11 Parallel Structure 186

Module 12 Expressing Personality 215

Module 13 Making Nouns and Pronouns Agree 235

Module 14 Matters on Which Experts Disagree 255

Module 15 Run-On Sentences 269

Module 16 Commas in Lists 285

Module 17 Combining Sentences 295

Module 18 Delivering Criticism 311

Module 19 Hyphens and Dashes 323

Module 20 Choosing Levels of Formality 339

Module 21 Mixing Verb Tenses 357

Module 22 Using MLA Style 375

Module 23 Being Concise 390

Module 24 Improving Paragraphs 414

Module 25 Writing Subject Lines and Headings 435

Module 26 Using Details 448

Module 27 Proofreading 472

Module 28 Using You and I 489

Module 29 Using a Dictionary 506

Module 30 Who/Whom and I/Me 513

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Business Communication BUILD ING CR IT ICAL SK ILLS

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Sixth Edition

Kitty O. Locker The Ohio State University

Stephen Kyo Kaczmarek Columbus State Community College

Business Communication BUILD ING CR IT ICAL SK ILLS

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BUSINESS COMMUNICATION: BUILDING CRITICAL SKILLS, SIXTH EDITION Published by McGraw-Hill/Irwin, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY, 10020. Copyright © 2014 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2011, 2009, and 2007. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 DOW/DOW 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

ISBN 978-0-07-340326-7 MHID 0-07-340326-1

Senior Vice President, Products & Markets: Kurt L. Strand Vice President, Content Production & Technology Services: Kimberly Meriwether David Managing Director: Paul Ducham Senior Brand Manager: Anke Braun Weekes Executive Director of Development: Ann Torbert Development Editor II: Kelly I. Pekelder Executive Marketing Manager: Michael Gedatus Content Project Manager: Pat Frederickson Senior Buyer: Michael R. McCormick Lead Designer: Matthew Baldwin Interior Design: Matthew Baldwin Cover Design: Laurie Entringer Cover Images: ©Stockbyte/Getty Images/Design Pics/Blend Images/Ingram Publishing/AGE Fotostock Lead Content Licensing Specialist: Keri Johnson Photo Researcher: Teri Stratford/Six Cats Research Media Project Manager: Joyce J. Chappetto Typeface: 10/12 Times Roman Compositor: Laserwords Private Limited Printer: R. R. Donnelley

All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.

CIP has been applied for.

The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill, and McGraw-Hill does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.

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As revision to the third edition of BCS neared completion, Dr. Kitty O. Locker passed away. She was a mentor for many years, and I will cherish all that she taught me. Kitty’s contributions to teaching and to business communication are far too extensive for proper recognition here. So, it is simply on behalf of the students and colleagues whose lives she touched that I make this special dedication to my friend.

Kitty, you are missed.

Stephen Kyo Kaczmarek

To my husband, Bob Mills, with love. —Kitty O. Locker

For my father, who always believed in me. —Stephen Kyo Kaczmarek

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Kitty O. Locker was an Associate Professor of English at The Ohio State University, where she taught courses in workplace discourse and research methods. She had taught as Assistant Professor at Texas A&M University and the University of Illinois at Urbana.

She received her BA from DePauw University and her MA and Ph.D. from the Univer- sity of Illinois at Urbana.

She had also written Business and Administrative Communication (7th ed., McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005) and The Irwin Business Communication Handbook: Writing and Speaking in Business Classes (1993), and co-edited Conducting Research in Business Communication (1988).

Her consulting clients included URS Greiner, Abbott Laboratories, the Ohio Civil Ser- vice Employees Association, AT&T, and the American Medical Association. She devel- oped a complete writing improvement program for Joseph T. Ryerson, the nation’s largest steel materials service center.

In 1994–95, she served as President of the Association for Business Communication (ABC). From 1997 to 2000, she edited ABC’s Journal of Business Communication. She received ABC’s Outstanding Researcher Award in 1992 and ABC’s Meada Gibbs Out- standing Teacher Award in 1998.

Stephen Kyo Kaczmarek is a Professor of English at Columbus State Community College and a consultant to business and industry. He teaches courses in business communication, composition, creative writing, freshman experience, film and literature, globalization and culture, and public relations, and he co-advises the Phi Theta Kappa chapter at Columbus State. Steve has also taught at The Ohio State University and Ohio Dominican University. He received an MA in English and BAs in journalism and English from Ohio State.

Steve has presented papers at conferences of the Association for Business Communica- tion (ABC), the College English Association of Ohio (CEAO), the Conference on College Composition and Communication, and the Northeast Modern Language Association. He has served on ABC’s Two-Year College Committee and its Diversity Committee, as well as on the CEAO Executive Council. His freelance articles have appeared in a variety of print and web publications, and he is a book reviewer for The Ohioana Quarterly and The Columbus Dispatch.

Steve’s consulting clients include Nationwide Insurance, The Ohio Historical Society, The Ohio Association of Historical Societies and Museums, The Ohio Museums Asso- ciation, Red Capital Mortgage Group, United Energy Systems, The Thomas Moyer for Chief Justice of Ohio Campaign, and Van Meter and Associates. He also advises individual clients on job search and interviewing techniques and is a reader for the College Board’s Advanced Placement Examination in English Language.

Prior to joining Columbus State, Steve managed staff development and information for the Franklin County, Ohio, Commissioners. He has received an Award of Excellence from the National Association of County Information Officers, as well as awards for his writing projects.

About the Authors

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About the Authors vii

August 20, 2012

Dear Student:

Business Communication: Building Critical Skills helps you build the writing, speaking, and listening skills that are crucial for success in the 21st-century workplace.

As you read,

• Look for the answers to each module’s questions. Check your memory with the Instant Replays and your understanding with the Summary of Learning Objectives at the end of the chapter.

• Note the terms in bold type and their definitions. Use the rewind and fast forward icons to go to discussions of terms. • Read the Building a Critical Skill boxes carefully. Practice the skills both in assignments and on your own. These skills will serve you well for the rest of your work life.

• Use items in the lists when you prepare your assignments or review for tests.

• Use the examples, especially the paired examples of effective and ineffective communication, as models to help you draft and revise. Comments in red ink signal problems in an example; comments in blue ink note things done well.

• Read the Site to See and FYI boxes in the margins to give you more resources on the Internet and interesting facts about business communication.

When you prepare an assignment,

• Review the PAIBOC questions in Module 1. Some assignments have “Hints” to help probe the problem. Some of the longer assignments have preliminary assignments analyzing the audience or developing reader benefits or subject lines. Use these to practice portions of longer documents. • If you’re writing a letter or memo, read the sample problems in Modules 10, 11, and 12 with a detailed analysis, strong and weak solutions, and a discussion of the solutions to see how to apply the principles in this book to your own writing.

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viii About the Authors

• Use the Polishing Your Prose exercises to make your writing its best.

• Remember that most problems are open-ended, requiring original, critical thinking. Many of the problems are deliberately written in negative, ineffective language. You’ll need to reword sentences, reorganize information, and think through the situation to produce the best possible solution to the business problem.

• Learn as much as you can about what‘s happening in business. The knowledge will not only help you develop reader benefits and provide examples but also make you an even more impressive candidate in job interviews.

• Visit the Online Learning Center (http://www.mhhe.com/bcs6e) to see how the resources presented there can help you. You will find updated articles, resume and letter templates, links to job hunting websites, and much more.

Communication skills are critical to success in both the new economy and the old. Business Communication: Building Critical Skills can help you identify and practice the skills you need. Have a good term—and a good career!

Cordially,

Stephen Kyo Kaczmarek BusCommBCS@gmail.com

August 20, 2012 Page 2

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About the Authors ix

August 20, 2012

Dear Professor:

Business Communication: Building Critical Skills (BCS) is here to help make your job teaching business communication a little bit easier.

Its modular design makes adapting BCS to 5–, 8–, 10–, or 15–week courses simpler. And, with videos, new media tools, and supplements, it is easy to adapt to Internet courses. The features teachers and students find so useful are also here: anecdotes and examples, easy-to-follow lists, integrated coverage of international business communication, analyses of sample problems, and a wealth of in-class exercises and out-of-class assignments.

But BCS takes these features a step further. In each module you’ll also find

• Polishing Your Prose boxes, featuring straightforward instructions to help students correct common writing errors, as well as exercises to test what they know. • Building a Critical Skill boxes, showing students how to apply what they know in the business world. • Site to See boxes that invite students to use the Internet to get timely information available in cyberspace. • Instant Replays to reinforce concepts students are reading. • Fast Forward/Rewind indicators to help students make connections between concepts in different modules. • FYI boxes that provide some lighthearted information about business communication.

This sixth edition is thoroughly updated based on the latest research in business communication. You’ll find many new problems and examples, new Polishing Your Prose exercises, and new Sites to See. Your students will benefit from timelines that identify the steps in planning, writing, and revising everything from seven-minute e-mail messages to memos taking six hours to reports taking 30 business days. Cases for Communicators at the end of each unit provide individual and group activities.

BCS also includes a comprehensive package of supplements to help you and your students.

• An Instructor’s Resource Manual with sample syllabi, an overview of each module, suggested lecture topics, in-class exercises, examples, discussion and quiz questions, and solutions to problems. • A Test Bank featuring hundreds of questions for use in quizzes, midterms, and final examinations—with answers. The Test Bank is in a computerized format (Mac or Windows) that allows you to create and edit your own tests.

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• Videos showing real managers reacting to situations dealing with cultural differences, active listening, working in teams, and the virtual workplace. • An Online Learning Center (http://www.mhhe.com/bcs6e) with self-quizzes for students, a bulletin board to communicate with other professors, current articles and research in business communication, downloadable supplements, links to professional resources, and more.

You can get more information about teaching business communication from the meetings and publications of The Association for Business Communication (ABC). Contact Dr. Betty S. Johnson Executive Director Association for Business Communication PO Box 6143 Nacogdoches, Texas 75962-6143 Telephone: 936-468-6280 Fax: 936-468-6281 E-mail: abcjohnson@sfasu.edu Web: www.businesscommunication.org

We’ve done our best to provide you with the most comprehensive but easy-to-use teaching tools we can. Tell us about your own success stories using BCS. We look forward to hearing from you!

Cordially,

Stephen Kyo Kaczmarek BusCommBCS@gmail.com

August 20, 2012 Page 2

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We’ve listened to your feedback on what you like and what you want improved in BCS, keeping as much of the text intact as possible while also making sure BCS6e accurately reflects changes in the workplace and in the field of business communication. In particu- lar, Module 13 has been renamed “E-Mail Messages, Web Writing, and Technology” and updated to include more discussion on using social networking tools, and Modules 27 and 28 integrate social media into job application documents. Throughout the book, you’ll find hundreds of elements revised or all new, including FYIs, Sites to See, BCS boxes, Prob- lems and Exercises, Polishing Your Prose exercises, and Cases for Communicators.

Module 1: This critical foundation module underscores the importance of excellent com- munication skills in the workplace. For this edition, it includes a new opener reflecting on the tough economic realities of today’s workplace and how the ability to read and write well gives professionals an edge on the competition. There are also new FYIs on Carnegie Speech’s language training for a global market; vital 21st-century job skills that include oral and written communication; the slow gains in reading skills among elementary and middle school students (the next wave of college students and young professionals); degrees of study and workplace success that correlate in surprising ways; a typo that may have caused stock market chaos; and the most literate cities in the United States. A new Site to See invites students to test their interpersonal skills, and the BCS box has been updated to include information on start-up companies and a new Apple photo. A new end- of-module problem and new Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

Module 2: Revisions to the module opener reinforce the importance of audience analysis, and some elements have been moved to improve the flow of the module. New FYIs include discussions on an offensive ad by Nivea that failed to properly analyze its audience; errors by FEMA and subsequent messages that made problems worse for disaster victims; the travails of test takers and a talking pineapple; a politician’s lack of awareness of how audi- ences might view his multimillion-dollar income; public criticism by P. J. Crowley that cost him his job; and the value of role-playing to achieve buy-in from audiences. The BCS box has been updated to note that Zappos was named by CNN/Money as one of the 100 Best Companies to Work For. A new end-of-module problem and all new Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

Module 3: In an ever-shrinking world, this module’s overview of the elements of diversity and culture that help shape the workplace becomes even more critical for 21st-century professionals. New FYIs in Module 3 focus on the rise of interracial marriages in the United States; the value of touch to staying healthy; self-definition by Millennials in the workplace; Nike’s sexist Olympic T-shirt design; women now scoring higher than men on IQ tests; ads that present women and minorities offensively; Baby Boomers being targeted by con artists; and the lack of diversity in U.S. television and what is being done about it. A new Site to See offers reviews and links to apps that can make travel easier. New end-of- module problems and new Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

Module 4: This module’s revised opener notes that while the increased pace of the work- place has brought increased pressure to compose faster and faster, writers must still take care to compose effectively. New FYIs discuss how what constitutes revisions changes according to audience; Mortgage Resolution Partners’ plan to keep more people in their homes; errant e-mails that terrified hundreds of employees into thinking they were fired; and tips from experts on overcoming procrastination. Site to See addresses have been updated, and a new Site to See invites visitors to take beginning and advanced Microsoft Word tutorials. New Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

New and Improved Coverage in BCS6e!

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Module 5: The module opener has been revised to emphasize that the principles of good design still apply to ever-changing social media, and the BCS box has been updated to ref- erence Google Docs. Two new FYIs discuss the importance of document design—the first being a Pew Charitable Trust study on how checking account documents are too confusing to follow, and the second on how large, multi-touch screens are part of the next wave of technological changes in how we use and format documents. Site to See addresses have been updated, and a new Site to See offers tips on using PowerPoint slides in presenta- tions. New Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates to the module, and the new Case for Communicators for Unit 1 examines how poor proofreading caused financial headaches for Old Navy.

Module 6: Modules 6, 7, and 8 detail the cornerstones of good business communication: you-attitude, positive emphasis, and reader benefits. They are briefer than some of the ear- lier modules but are meant to be read as a collective. For Module 6, examples throughout have been updated to reflect more current dates. One new FYI features a study that found a link among prejudices, low intelligence, and social conservatism, while another notes the lack of you-attitude among employees at Goldman Sachs, who, among other things, referred to clients as “muppets.” A new Site to See invites students to test their Emotional Intelligence. New end-of-module problems and new Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

Module 7: Understanding the role of positive emphasis in business communication—and contrasting it with negative points of view—is vital to composing effective messages. Revisions to this module include FYIs on the disturbing findings that for the first time, most Americans do not believe today’s young people will have better lives than their par- ents; the effect of optimism on both physical and financial health; the news that happier people make better workers; the role of resilience in helping people cope with stress and life’s challenges; tips on making video apologies; and updates on failed apologies and on the happiest states in the United States. New end-of-module problems and new Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

Module 8: Developing good reader benefits can challenge students, so new FYIs focus on creative and interesting ways that benefits affect people. These FYIs discuss how the intrinsic value of self-image may be more important to people than even money; how bou- tique grocery stores provide online shopping and home delivery benefits to customers; the correlation between more education and longer life expectancy; and the counterintuitive patterns of liars and cheaters being unfazed by potential consequences. New Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates to the module, and the new Case for Com- municators for Unit 2 examines how poor proofreading resulted in embarrassment for The New York Times.

Module 9: While the formats for memos and letters remain unchanged, technology is influencing how such documents are created and sent. Thus, new FYIs reflect on cloud technology making it easier to store documents but with the added challenge of making sure formats remain intact; indecipherable handwriting on letters and packages thwarted by Post Office scanning equipment; and CEOs Mike Duke and Tom Barrack being embar- rassed by the memos they sent to employees that went viral. Examples throughout this module have been updated to reflect current dates. New Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

Module 10: This module has been renamed “Informative and Positive Messages” and all examples have been updated to reflect more current dates. In addition, FYIs now include the best out-of-office e-mail reply of all time; a movie trailer that uses a customer’s rant to remind others of its no-talking/no-texting policy; chocolate, indeed, being able to change a person’s mood for the better; customers tweeting complaints and how companies can

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better manage their image; the earliest appearance of the now-popular word “information”; and the effect of nearly 25% of the world workers’ depression on productivity. A new end- of-module problem and all new Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

Module 11: New FYIs include how what most people would consider bad news actu- ally helped shooting victim Petra Anderson; the surprising answer to who was behind a campaign to spread negative information about Google; the potential negative effect on reputation from working at home; types of “toxic” bosses in the workplace; workers want- ing honesty from managers and supervisors; a gay instructor fired by Facebook for daring to give a chatty employee a look; Lego’s attempts to cater to girls; and the most educated employees also facing the most stress on the job. Sites to See addresses have been updated, and examples throughout this module reflect more current dates. A new end-of-module problem and all new Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

Module 12: Though we’re surrounded by persuasive messages every day, understanding them and then creating our own effective ones require careful effort. For better flow in the discussion, some elements of this module have been moved, and new FYIs discuss online bullying persuading people to help the victims; former Xerox CEO Anne Mulcahy almost being persuaded by sexist salespeople to go somewhere else; “birthers” refusing to be per- suaded by President Obama’s birth certificate; branding’s effect on persuading consumers; the “like me bias” in performance appraisals; and tips for writing effective sales letters. Revisions to existing FYIs involve product placement in James Bond movies, and Block- buster Video CEO Jim Keyes’ public criticism of Netflix failing to persuade consumers. A new end-of-module problem and all new Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

Module 13: Of all the modules in BCS6e, this one has been revised the most extensively, reflecting the rapid changes that come with our highly technological age. For starters, it has been renamed “E-Mail Messages, Web Writing, and Technology,” and the body copy has been tweaked to better integrate technology into the discussion while examples have been updated to reflect more current dates. In particular, the discussion on using social network- ing tools has been expanded, and a new photo coordinates with changes to Facebook’s current design. Some elements have been moved to improve the flow of the discussion. New FYIs discuss the ever-increasing use of smartphones for e-mail and web use; a cyber- stalking investment manager’s 1,600-word plea for another date; a study of more than 977 e-mail messages revealing that shorter subject lines attract more clicks; Pew Research Center’s findings that most Americans prefer vocal communication to texting, while a Nielsen survey shows that 13- to 17-year-olds send and receive 10 times as many texts as people ages 45 to 54; signs that the popularity of blogging among young people is waning; tips to use social networking in business; offensive tweets that got their authors in trouble; Latino and Hispanic Americans leading the way in embracing web technology; and a host of tips for better cell phone etiquette. An existing FYI includes more information on e-mail etiquette, and a new Site to See offers 20 tips on using Facebook in business. A new end- of-module problem and new Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates to the module, and the new Case for Communicators for Unit 3 examines the problems United Airlines faced when a computer glitch booked flights to Asia at an incorrect price.

Module 14: This module focuses on the nuts and bolts of using grammar and punctua- tion effectively. New FYIs reveal how 45% of employers surveyed say they are increas- ing training to improve grammar and other skills of employees; how CEO Kyle Wiens requires all job applicants to his companies to take a grammar test; and commentator Andy Rooney’s aversion to apostrophes. There is also an addition to an existing mod- ule regarding a cable TV charge of $16.4 million, and Site to See addresses have been updated. New end-of-module problems and new Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

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xiv About the Authors

Module 15: Because choosing the right word is as much an art as it is a skill, new FYIs present examples of real-world applications—as well as misapplications: how U.S. presi- dents have managed to misspeak in public; what food label language might actually mean; idiomatic phrases that baffle non-native speakers of English; and the limitations of spell- checkers with common errors. The BCS box has been revised to challenge readers to think about the implications of a study that shows “mean” men do better in the workplace than nicer ones. New end-of-module problems and new Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

Module 16: New FYIs in this module include the arrogant style of a college student seek- ing a summer job; missed opportunities for message revision that resulted in athletes being insulted or being dismissed from the field of play; buzzwords on LinkedIn that are over- used; and venerable critic Roger Ebert’s Facebook page being censored for posts during a heated exchange. An existing FYI has been updated to include the 2012 winners of a wacky warning label contest, and the BCS box caption has been updated to note Johnnetta B. Cole’s current position as chair of the institute that bears her name. New end-of-module and new Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates to the module, and the new Case for Communicators for Unit 4 examines how a misspelling on a key road sign proved an embarrassment for the state of Ohio.

Module 17: This module features new FYIs on how listeners today need a shift in stimula- tion about every 20 minutes; how students learning foreign languages did better after train- ing in listening skills; and how archetypes for bad listeners, including Preamblers, such as the hosts of CNN’s Crossfire were called out by guest Jon Stewart for using the show as a platform to give speeches on their points of view. Site to See addresses and the caption for the photo of Elizabeth Gonzalez-Gann have also been updated.

Module 18: New FYIs to help students better understand how to be effective on work teams discuss the hidden costs of being on a team; how introverts may suffer from the effects of groupthink; how social networking media is making us lonelier; how to use hip hop as a team-building exercise; ways to keep “digital nomads” connected with the work- place; and how a diverse team of students presented a business plan at Florida Atlantic University. The existing FYI on bad bosses has been revised to include the results of two recent polls. New Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

Module 19: A new module opener underscores how meetings are viewed by many employ- ees, as well as the importance of choosing whether to hold a meeting in the first place. New FYIs focus on how many hours CEOs spend in meetings; using chocolate and other cre- ative ways to keep meetings on track; tips to be an effective meeting participant; caveats for teleconferencing; companies, such as Nutrisystem, Symantec, and Herman Miller, that are holding annual meetings online; and Twist, an app from investor Bill Lee that helps track where meeting-goers are. One FYI has been revised to include information on using tablet PCs and other tools to make meetings more interactive, and Site to See addresses have been updated. New Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

Module 20: New FYIs include Kathy Caprino’s tips to avoid mistakes in speeches; gaffes by a university president; Microsoft’s Kirill Tatarinov’s quick recovery from a technical glitch during a presentation; a poetry recitation that went horribly wrong; Steve Carell’s effective use of humor during a graduation speech; a criminal’s conviction being upheld because of his silence; and the importance of rehearsing before a speech. A new Site to See showcases PowerPoint examples and other resources. New Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates to the module, and the new Case for Communicators for Unit 5 looks at the role of charisma in leadership and whether people can be trained to be more charismatic.

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About the Authors xv

Module 21: This module on proposals and progress reports features new FYIs on how feasibility studies on sports arenas show they are money losers for taxpayers; the London Business School’s John W. Mullins’ advice on writing a good business plan; how people are using Twitter to submit business plans; how some successful businesses nevertheless had their business plans lose in-class competitions; the effect of discourse communities on sales proposals; and the results of Apple’s annual Supplier and Responsibility Report. Site to See addresses have been updated, and new Sites to See include sample recommendation reports from the Centers for Disease Control, tips for writing proposals from the Small Business Association, the New York City school system’s progress reports, and progress reports from the World Health Organization on the fight against HIV/AIDS. Examples throughout the module have been updated to reflect more current dates. New Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

Module 22: Because research is so critical today, a new module opener stresses the impor- tance of research to business and industry, as well as the need to make sure information resources are trustworthy. Minor tweaks have been made to the body copy. New FYIs include a discussion on Splunk, the first “Big Data” company to go public; how a Florida man convicted of murder got a new trial because a stenographer erased records inadver- tently; unusual findings from research, such as how the more debt college students have, the higher their self-esteem; the high number of fake accounts on Facebook; estimates of how much data is consumed annually online; racist tweets that got two Olympians expelled from the London games; and the amount of money spent by corporations for employee training despite a lack of research on its effectiveness. New Sites to See include Survey Monkey and the Purdue OWL website. New Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

Module 23: Some elements of this module have been reorganized to improve flow. New FYIs include reports from companies questioning the effectiveness of Facebook ads; how younger people are choosing to rent a wide variety of items rather than own them; a Georgetown University report that despite some college majors being more employable than others, research still shows a college degree is worth it; employers scouring credit reports on job applicants; “pink slime” and its effects on consumer perceptions; and how disorganization—not just in documents but in general—costs companies. New Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

Module 24: The sample student report in this module has been revised to reflect more cur- rent dates. One new FYI discusses an innovative annual report from Austria Solar that uses light to make text on its otherwise blank pages visible. Another new FYI gives examples of how report data helps organizations to strategize. Orbitz, for instance, found that Apple users spend as much as 30% more per night on hotels than PC users. Site to See addresses have been updated, and new Sites to See include Graphis’s Top 100 Annual Reports win- ners and a copy of NASA’s Education Recommendation Report. A new Polishing Your Prose exercise rounds out the updates.

Module 25: A new module opener emphasizes the importance of charts, graphs, clip art, and other images in this increasingly visual age. New FYIs include technology that allows people to write using eye movements; tips for effective visual note taking; websites like Pinterest and Flickr that are changing the way we share information; how Ambassador Gary Locke became a hit in China for carrying his own bags and getting his own coffee; hidden messages in corporate logos; and the challenges from corporate branding on the 2012 Olympics. New Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates to the module, and the new Case for Communicators for Unit 6 looks at how waterless car washes are transforming that industry in the Middle East, as well as implications for such businesses in the United States.

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xvi About the Authors

Module 26: The module opener has been revised to discuss the challenges of finding a job in a bad economy as well as how getting started early and using social networking tools like LinkedIn and Facebook can help. Some elements have been reorganized to improve flow. New FYIs include revelations on how despite younger people embracing information technology, relatively few of them choose it as a career field; location being a major factor in job applicant trends; how unemployment is affecting college graduates and how many jobs that don’t require degrees are going unfilled; the top master’s degrees for income potential and which career requiring a graduate degree women find most satisfying; apps for people looking for a job; states making it illegal to bar the unemployed from applying for jobs; how employees in the middle of the income pack are vulnerable to downsizing; and how unemployment is affecting different generations. New Polishing Your Prose exer- cises round out the updates.

Module 27: Revisions to the module opener note how technology may be changing how résumés look and are submitted, underscoring the need to adapt to the employer’s expec- tations. Minor tweaks have been made to improve body copy. Examples throughout the module have been updated to reflect more current dates, and several examples now include social networking page addresses. New FYIs discuss a college student who sent a photo of Nicolas Cage instead of her résumé to a prospective employer; résumé gaffes like listing “phishing” as a hobby; how companies use tracking systems to check on applicants’ social networking pages; the proliferation of lies on résumés; and how recruiters and others use Facebook and Google to screen applicants.

Module 28: The module opener reminds job applicants to use the process employers want, such as a brief e-mail message in lieu of a formal letter in some cases. Examples through- out the module have been updated to reflect more current dates. New FYIs include discus- sions on a 3,000-word rejection letter sent to job applicants that went viral, and debates among experts as to whether the job application letter is going away. New Sites to See pro- vide job application letter examples from Virginia Polytechnic Institute, State University, and Monster. New Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

Module 29: New FYIs in this module cover employers wanting Facebook passwords from applicants; UBS AG’s stringent dress codes; leaving emotional baggage behind in job interviews; a survey that revealed 70% of hiring managers have experienced odd behavior from interviewees; unusual stress interview situations; how students coming from homes that appreciate in value are more likely to go to more expensive colleges; LinkedIn’s com- pilation of worst questions asked of female job applicants; advice from Jason Fried for hir- ing managers to screen out applicants who ask “how” instead of “why” questions; and tips for making the most of virtual job interviews. New Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

Module 30: Revisions to this module’s opener remind students to think in terms of careers rather than simply jobs, and to be self-reliant but not mercenary. New FYIs include Jenny Foss’s advice on staying in touch with job interviewers through such resources as Link- edIn; planning carefully for career and early retirement; and how today’s employees are more likely to have many short-term jobs in their careers than previous generations did. Examples throughout the module have been updated to reflect more current dates. New Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates to the module, and the new Case for Communicators for Unit 7 looks at how traditional Arts and Sciences programs at universi- ties are starting to incorporate entrepreneurial and other job-related coursework into their curriculums.

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xvii

All writing is in some sense collaborative. This book in particular builds upon the ideas and advice of teachers, students, and researchers. The people who share their ideas in con- ferences and publications enrich not only this book but also business communication as a field.

People who contributed directly to the formation of this sixth edition include the following:

Frederick C. Alm, Hudson Valley Community College

Roxanne Bengelink, Kalamazoo Valley Community College

Danielle Blesi, Hudson Valley Community College

Mary Young Bowers, The W.A. Franke College of Business-Northern Arizona University

Marjorie Coffey, Oregon State University

Donna R. Everett, Morehead State University

Frances M. Hale, Columbus State Community College

Anna Haney-Withrow, Florida Gulf Coast University

Elizabeth F. Heath, Florida Gulf Coast University

Norma Johansen, Scottsdale Community College Business Institute

James Katt, University of Central Florida

Mark Mabrito, Purdue University Calumet

Marcia A. Metcalf, Northern Arizona University

Lori Oldham, San Diego City College

Miri Pardo, St. John Fisher College

Richard D. Parker, Ph.D., High Point University

Renee Rallo, Florida Gulf Coast University

Marcel M. Robles, Eastern Kentucky University

Kathy Standen, Fullerton College

Sharron Stockhausen, Anoka Ramsey Community College

Laura Alderson, The University of Memphis

Paula E. Brown, Northern Illinois University

Debra Burelson, Baylor University

Donna Carlon, University of Central Oklahoma

Elizabeth Christensen, Sinclair Community College

Dorinda Clippinger, University of South Carolina—The Moore School of Business

Linda Di Desidero, University of Maryland University College

Melissa Fish, American River College

Acknowledgments

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xviii Acknowledgments

Catherine Flynn, University of Maryland University College

Dina Friedman, University of Massachusetts Amherst

Canday A. Henry, Westmoreland County Community College

Sara Jameson, Oregon State University

Mark Knockemus, Northeastern Technical College

Gary Kohut, University of North Carolina at Charlotte

Anna Maheshwari, Schoolcraft College

Kenneth R. Mayer, Cleveland State University

William McPherson, IUP

Joyce Monroe Simmons, Florida State University

Gregory Morin, University of Nebraska at Omaha

Christine E Rittenour, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Teeanna Rizkallah, California State University, Fullerton

Joyce W. Russell, Rockingham Community College

Stacey Short, Northern Illinois University

Natalie Sillman-Webb, The University of Utah

Vicki Stalbird, Sinclair Community College

Jan Starnes, The University of Texas at Austin

Bonnie Rae Taylor, Pennsylvania College of Technology

William Wardrope, University of Central Oklahoma

Mark Alexander, Indiana Wesleyan University

Laura Barnard, Lakeland Community College

Trudy Burge, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Jay Christensen, California State University-Northridge

Dorinda Clippinger, University of South Carolina

Linda Cooper, Macon State College

Patrick Delana, Boise State University

Donna Everett, Morehead State University

Melissa Fish, American River College

Linda Fraser, California State University-Fullerton

Mary Ann Gasior, Wright State University

Sinceree Gunn, University of Alabama, Hunstville

Diana Hinkson, Texas State University-San Marcos

Paula Holanchock, Flagler College

Stanley Kuzdzal, Delta College

Bill McPherson, Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Julianne Michalenko, Robert Morris University

Joyce Russell, Rockingham Community College

Janine Solberg, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Carolyn Sturgeon, West Virginia State University

Bonnie Taylor, Pennsylvania College of Technology

Jie Wang, University of Illinois at Chicago

William Wardrope, University of Central Oklahoma In addition, the book continues to benefit from the contributions of the following people:

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Acknowledgments xix

Linda Landis Andrews, University of Illinois at Chicago

Laura Barnard, Lakeland Community College

Barry Belknap, University of Saint Francis

Bruce Bell, Liberty University

Mary Lou Bertrand, SUNY-Jefferson

Pam Besser, Jefferson Community College

Martha Graham Blalock, University of Wisconsin

Stuart Brown, New Mexico State University

David Bruckner, University of Washington

Joseph Bucci, Harcum College

Donna Carlon, University of Central Oklahoma

Martin Carrigan, University of Findlay

Bill Chapel, Michigan Technological University

Dorinda Clippinger, University of South Carolina

Janice Cooke, University of New Orleans

Missie Cotton, North Central Missouri College

Christine Cranford, East Carolina University

James Dubinsky, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Ronald Dunbar, University of Wisconsin—Baraboo/Sauk County

Kay Durden, University of Tennessee at Martin

Sibylle Emerson, Louisiana State University in Shreveport

Donna Everett, Morehead State University

Patricia Garner, California State University, Los Angeles

Kurt Garrett, University of South Alabama

Shawn Gilmore, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Dorothy Gleckner, Bergen Community College

Jeff Goddin, Kelley School of Business

Geraldine Harper, Howard University

Rod Haywood, Indiana University—Bloomington

Jeanette Heidewald, Kelley School of Business

Pashia Hogan, Northeast State Technical Community College

Paula Kaiser, University of North Carolina—Greensboro

Gary Kohut, University of North Carolina at Charlotte

Linda LaDuc, University of Massachusetts Amherst

Luchen Li, Kettering University

Sandra Linsin, Edmonds Community College

Jeré Littlejohn, University of Mississippi

Richard Malamud, California State University, Dominguez Hills

Kenneth Mayer, Cleveland State University

Susan Smith McClaren, Mt. Hood Community College

Lisa McConnell, Oklahoma State University

Vivian McLaughlin, Pierce College

Susan Mower, Dixie State College of Utah

Elwin Myers, Texas A&M University—Corpus Christi

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