ENGLISH

Item 4

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material Student Version
The philosophical position known as constructivism views knowledge as a human construction. The various perspectives within constructivism are based on the premise that knowledge is not part of an objective, external reality that is separate from the individual. Instead, human knowledge, whether the bodies of content in public disciplines (such as mathematics or sociology) or knowledge of the individual learner, is a human construction.

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Does knowledge exist outside of, or separate from, the individual who knows? Constructivists hold that human knowledge, whether the bodies of content in public disciplines (such as mathematics or sociology) or knowledge of the individual learner, is a human construction (Gredler, 2001).

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

 

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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Item 5

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material Student Version (written in 2002)
The technological tools available today for creating computer-based learning materials are incredibly more powerful than those introduced just a few years ago. We can make our own movies with camcorders in our homes; we can publish our own books. Soon teachers and students will be able to use computer-video technology to produce their own learning materials. All it takes is time, know-how, and some funds.

References:
Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

Computers are so powerful that K-12 educators and students are now able to produce their own multimedia and Web-based learning materials.  They just need to take the time required to learn to use the authoring tools and related technologies such as digital cameras and camcorders.

References:
Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

 

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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Item 6

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material Student Version
The philosophical position known as constructivism views knowledge as a human construction. The various perspectives within constructivism are based on the premise that knowledge is not part of an objective, external reality that is separate from the individual. Instead, human knowledge, whether the bodies of content in public disciplines (such as mathematics or sociology) or knowledge of the individual learner; is a human construction.

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

“The philosophical position known as constructivism views knowledge as a human construction. The various perspectives within constructivism are based on the premise that knowledge is not part of an objective, external reality that is separate from the individual. Instead, human knowledge is a human construction” (p. 29).

 

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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Item 7

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material Student Version
Learning from demonstrations is enhanced when learners actively engage in interaction with one another rather than passively observing the demonstration. When learners are required to find a new portrayal of the information that has been presented, they are required to process the information at a deeper level in order to identify and demonstrate this new portrayal. When they are required to demonstrate their new portrayals to one another, this provides additional portrayals of the information being taught, thus increasing the richness of the instruction.

References:

Merrill, M. D. (2009). First principles of instruction. In C. M. Reigeluth & A. A. Carr-Chellman (Eds.), Instructional-Design theories and models: Building a common knowledge base. (pp. 41-56). New York: Routledge.

 

In order to make instruction more effective, learners should be required to find additional portrayals of the information which have been presented by the instructor. Learners are expected to then demonstrate their portrayals to one another. Learning from demonstrations is enhanced when learners actively engage in interaction with one another rather than passively observing the demonstration.

 

 

References:

Merrill, M. D. (2009). First principles of instruction. In C. M. Reigeluth & A. A. Carr-Chellman (Eds.), Instructional-Design theories and models: Building a common knowledge base. (pp. 41-56). New York: Routledge.

 

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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Item 8

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material Student Version
The theory we have constructed originates with the three phases of learning described above. We have organize and adapted the features of simulations to provide the learner with the most effective and efficient presentations in order to achieve successful acquisition, application and assessment. Our general model describes five aspects of simulations and provides prescriptions for the implementation of each. It applies to all simulations for teaching principles or procedures. Specific conditions or types of simulations require their own characteristic prescriptions that are described G3 variations on the general model.

 

References:

Reigeluth, C., & Schwartz, E. (1989). An instructional theory for the design of computer-based simulations. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 16(1), 1-10.

Another ID theory that could be useful in the design of educational games is a model presented by Reigeluth and Schwartz (1989) intended for designing instruction in educational simulations. This model provides a more specific approach to designing instruction. Reigeluth and Schwartz propose three phases of the learning process which educational simulations should activate. They are: (1) acquisition of basic knowledge, (2) application of knowledge to the full range of scenarios, and (3) assessment of what has been learned. Their model for designing educational simulations is comprised of heuristics intended to inform the designer in following a set of prescriptions.

References:

Reigeluth, C., & Schwartz, E. (1989). An instructional theory for the design of computer-based simulations. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 16(1), 1-10.

 

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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Item 9

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material Student Version
The concept of systems is really quite simple. The basic idea is that a system has parts that fit together to make a whole; but where it gets complicated – and interesting – is how those parts are connected or related to each other. There are many kinds of systems: government systems, health systems, military systems, business systems, and educational systems, to name a few.

References:
Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

The fundamental idea of systems, such as corporations and schools, is actually very simple. Each system has components which interact. What is important is how those components are connected together.

 

References:
Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

 

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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Item 10

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material Student Version
Major changes within organizations are usually initiated by those who are in power. Such decision-makers sponsor the change and then appoint someone else – perhaps the director of training – to be responsible for implementing and managing change. Whether the appointed change agent is in training development or not, there is often the implicit assumption that training will “solve the problem.” And, indeed, training may solve part of the problem.…  The result is that potentially effective innovations suffer misuse, or even no use, in the hands of uncommitted users.

References:
Dormant, D. (1986). The ABCDs of managing change. In Introduction to Performance Technology (p. 238-256). Washington, D.C.: National Society of Performance and Instruction.

When major changes are initiated in organizations, “… there is often the implicit assumption that training will ‘solve the problem.’  And, indeed, training may solve part of the problem.” (Dormant, 1986, p. 238).

 

References:
Dormant, D. (1986). The ABCDs of managing change. In Introduction to Performance Technology (p. 238-256). Washington, D.C.: National Society of Performance and Instruction.

 

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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