Engineering

Choose any one of the right answer out of three options. (Minimum pass grade is 80%)

I. A few ‘Safe As Houses’ alarms have been redesigned in an attempt to reduce the large number of complaints where alarms have sounded by accident. One of the new types of alarm is less sensitive than its predecessors. Studies have shown that these newer alarms are rarely activated for no reason. ‘Safe as Houses’ still sells a number of the original, sensitive alarm systems, because the increase in threshold for motion detection means that the new style alarms may fail to register break-in where limited force is being used.

1. The new alarm systems should better protect homes than the previous system.

True/False/Cannot say

2. Some people prefer to buy alarms that sometimes activate for no reason. True/False/Cannot say

II. A newly developed process of creating artificial skin may be useful for treating burns and wounds. The established method of treating such injuries is using a skin graft taken from another, usually unseen, part of the body. However, artificial skin, grown in the lab from cells called fibroblasts, has shown in a handful of trials to have better healing properties than ‘living skin’ and a lower tendency towards scarring. The process is currently being refined by researchers, who maintain that the wide availability of artificial skin could completely transform the way burns and other skin damage are treated.

3. The artificial skin grafting process is readily available.

True/False/Cannot say

4. Artificial skin and living skin are identical. True/False/Cannot say

III. A report from a prestigious university has urged the world’s richest countries to consider the precarious position of bird species from around the world. The study suggests that acting now could ensure the survival of 400 to 900 species of land bird that are at risk because of the actions of humans. The report pays particular attention to the dangers faced by those species which are highly specialized, and may not be able to adapt to changes in their environment. Richer countries currently have little awareness of the dangers faced by bird species around the world, and tend to concentrate on the preservation of local species instead.

5. The report’s main focus is on bird species located in third-world countries.

True/False/Cannot say

6. Rich counties show little awareness of the need to preserve bird species.

True/False/Cannot say

IV. A UN report has warned of the potential problems of global warming. If the production of greenhouse gases continues at the current rate, this will result in the melting of the ice sheets in Greenland and the Antarctic. The consequences of this will be rising sea levels, which will endanger 145 million people. In response to the problem, the report observes the need for an immediate international agreement on reducing emissions.

7. Reducing emissions will help to slow down the progress of global warming.

True/False/Cannot say

8. Greenhouse gases are produced in greater quantities in Greenland and The Antarctic.

True/False/Cannot say

V. Although people are buying less sugar to add to their food, the percentage of sugar eaten in manufactured foods is increasing sharply. In manufactured food, sugar is often referred to on the label as fructose, sucrose or dextrose. Most studies show that the human body cannot tell the difference between fructose and sucrose. Because of the increase in childhood obesity, there is a concern at the growing compulsion to eat over-sugared food. No studies prove that consuming large amounts of sugar causes coronary heart disease, however. Also, sugar does not by itself make people fat.

9. There is no correlation between the overconsumption of sugar and coronary heart disease.

True/False/Cannot say

10. Some studies show that the human body treats sucrose and fructose differently.

True/False/Cannot say

VI. Despite decreases in the miles traveled by the average cyclist in recent years, the increase in bicycle sales over the last 5 years has meant a corresponding increase in cycle accidents. This increase is especially marked among teenagers and young children. Last year, 45% of all cycle casualties were under 14 years of age and another 20% under 20 years of age. The provisional figures for this year show some improvement, but the fact remains that the number of cyclists of all ages injured each year is unacceptably high.

11. New bicycle owners travel fewer miles on average than cyclists that have owned their bicycle for more than 5 years.

True/False/Cannot say

12. Bicycle accidents are more a function of the average distance travelled than the number of bicycles on the road. True/False/Cannot say

VII. Despite vehicle improvements and campaigns for road safety, many injuries and fatalities are still caused by collisions and other incidents involving vehicles. According to investigations in the United States, some of these accidents could be prevented through the development of a mobile internet network. All of the cars on a stretch of road would be linked to each other, comprising the mobile network. Only one of these vehicles would need to be connected to the internet to download travel news to the mobile network. The studies highlight the safety advantages of such a system, which would enable drivers to find out about accidents and potential dangers as they happen and in relation to their particular location. Drivers and emergency service teams would have detailed information about problematic areas. There are, however, possible drawbacks to the development of such networks, not least that the availability of data including that the availability of data within them could facilitate privacy infringement.

13. A mobile network would allow for drivers to ascertain the distance between their location and an accident ahead.

True/False/Cannot say

14. All of the cars included in the mobile network can be connected to the Internet.

True/False/Cannot say

VIII. Economic research has identified a trend exhibited by one in six Britons of hiding cash in their homes instead of investing it. This is termed the ‘Biscuit Tin Economy’. It is estimated that £3.5 billion is currently hidden in homes across the country. While there are various reasons for hiding cash, 6% are doing so to conceal it from their partners, and 4% believe their money to be safer at home than in a bank. Researchers maintain that these actions demonstrate economic folly, and that, as a result, Britons are sacrificing up to £174 million in interest each year. This ‘Biscuit Tin Economy’ is betraying those who trust in it, as it renders their hidden money both unproductive and potentially unsafe, whereas it could be profitably invested in stocks or a high-interest savings plan.

15. The majority of people who hide cash on their property do so because they either do not trust the bank or they are hiding it from their partner.

True/False/Cannot say

16. Four percent of Britons are sacrificing potential interest they could gain on the money that they hide away in their home.

True/False/Cannot say

IX. Hargraves, one of the country’s leading specialist electrical engineering companies announced the rejection of a take-over bid made by the larger, more generalized MLT Group. The Board of Directors Stated that this was the decision of the majority of shareholders and the announcement kept the price of Hargraves shares where it had stood before the bid had been made. The Chairman was known to be very relieved by the decision as he could see no advantage for the shareholders, the company or its employees in the take-over despite evidence indicating that share prices are proportional to a company’s size.

17. Some shareholders were proponents of the take-over.

True/False/Cannot say

18. If the take-over had occurred, share prices for Hargraves would have gone down.

True/False/Cannot say

X. In the future it may be possible to construct environments in space, capable of supporting significant numbers of inhabitants in conditions that resemble those on Earth. New manufacturing technologies are being studied, which will enable work to be done in space by means of a combination of heat and kinetic energy. It has been shown that steel casting and welding is possible, heating the metal using a combination of sunlight and electrical energy. Solar power provides manufactures with a readily available natural power resource and this energy can be intensified for use in manufacturing with the utilization of an arrangement of maneuverable mirrors. Theoretically, space manufacturing could require only a very small amount of material being brought from Earth.

19. A combination of solar power, electrical energy, and kinetic energy may be used in the manufacturing of structures in space.

True/False/Cannot say

20. The main point of this passage is to emphasize the gross amount of materials to construct environments in space.

True/False/Cannot say

XI. Sagas Stores enjoys an international reputation for quality and style. Nowhere is this more important than in the dress and appearance of its staff. The company sets minimum standards of appearance which are demanded of all shop floor staff, although some departments have specific additional requirements. For all staff, hair must be clean, tidy and well cut at all times. “Designer Corner” operates a different staff dress code where business dress must be worn. For a woman, this would be a tailored suit, with a white or cream blouse. Men should wear dark grey trousers together with a white shirt and navy blazer.

21. Additional articles of apparel such as jewelry for women and ties for men are acceptable.

True/False/Cannot say

22. Female staff in “Designer Corner” must wear tailored suits.

True/False/Cannot say

XII. Staff training can have a number of objectives. It can be educational, aiming to develop the knowledge, skills, and abilities of the trainees. It can be a vehicle to promote company policies or values. Finally, it can raise levels of staff satisfaction by ensuring employees are able to improve their existing skills. Lively debate usually accompanies the allocation of expenditure to the annual training budget. Critics argue that certain costs associated with such programs could be scaled down, and those courses which are unproductive could be cut.

23. Staff training gets support from some individuals responsible for allocating funds within organizations.

True/False/Cannot say

24. Employees that have the opportunity to improve their skills are more satisfied with their jobs.

True/False/Cannot say

XIII. Timed examinations have always played an influential role in assessing the abilities of students; however, with increasing worries that pupils are plagiarizing material from the Internet for their final year assignments, there is going to be a renewed emphasis on traditional supervised assessment, albeit in a revised format. The new form of controlled assessment will still allow students to conduct independent research on the Internet and participate in beneficial, practical activities, such as educational trips, but it will also require students to present their final conclusions under supervised conditions within their school. It is hoped that these controlled assessments will maintain the integrity of their school qualifications, while also not disadvantaging those students who become stressed by traditional timed examinations.

25. The students’ use of the Internet will be uninhibited by this new form of assessment

True/False/Cannot say

26. Students who can prove that they cannot perform in a timed environment will be allowed to take the new assessment in an untimed manner True/False/Cannot say

XIV. Wi-Fi technology, which allows users to wirelessly connect to the Internet, has an obvious aesthetic benefit in that it can remove some of the unsightly wires which surround computers. However, Wi-Fi technology is also beneficial for businesses as it allows employees to work more flexibly, while it also negates the need for businesses to install expensive cabling, which is particularly useful if their office is in a rented building. As a result of the popularity of Wi-Fi, laws have had to be reviewed, and there have been convictions where people have been using someone else’s Wi-Fi without paying for the service. These reviews of the law are crucial in ensuring that Wi-Fi is presented as a secure form of technology, as only then will it retain the support of businesses.

27. Companies that own their office space may still want to use wired internet access to avoid any lawsuits against them.

True/False/Cannot say

28. Wireless internet access has the fastest transfer of information via the Internet

True/False/Cannot say

XV. The early chaos of the home computer industry in the United States (US), where it was developed, probably had a more detrimental effect in Europe than it did in the United States. All of the innovations in the field were companies which were too small to cope with or understand foreign sales. As a result all US companies sold exclusively through European distributors, some of which were only interested in making maximum profits in a minimum amount of time. Home computing in Europe got off to a slow start because greedy distributors worked through incompetent suppliers, none of which had any real interest in the long term future of the technology.

29. Distributors selling home computers in Europe were only interested in maximizing profits.

True/False/Cannot say

30. The use of distributors in Europe eased the burden of foreign sales for small technology companies in the United States.

True/False/Cannot say

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