Education

Teacher or parent notices  their student may exhibit learning or

behavior struggles. Request referral by verbally or

in writing.

Tier 3 – Last attempt at avoiding special education evaluation. Support team for

student and teacher. Intervention provided     without need for eligibility. Success?

Tier 1 – Universal Screening: All students take small tests in each

subject to find students that may have an issue that will affect learning.

Anything come up?

yes

Yes

Continue with Tier 1 Differentiated InstructionNo

Response to Intervention (RTI) to ensure quality instruction for

all students.

Tier 2 – Standard Intervention Protocol:         Team of administrators and educators plan

Individual student in general education with interventions and supplementary

instructional time. Is this successful?

No

No

yes

IDEA

Special Education Flowchart Michelle Crump

SPD500 Instructor Tricia Troiano

July 6, 2016

No

No

IDEA

IDEA

Evaluation tests geared toward student needs  could be for intelligence, academics,

communication skills, health, vision, hearing,  social skills, emotional well-being,

or motor skills.

Continue with Tier 2 Periodic evaluations.

General and supplementary education

Continue with Tier 3 Frequent evaluations

Parent or guardian must give  persmission for testing

IDEA

(Individuals with disabilities education act (IDEA),  20 U.S.C. 1412(a)(5)U.S.C. 300.8, 2006).

(IDEA, 2006 & Special, 2016)

(Colarusso, R. P., O’Rourke, C. M.,  & Leontovich, M. A., 2013)

(Colarusso, et al., 2013)

(Colarusso, et al., 2013)

(Colarusso, et al., 2013) (Colarusso, et al., 2013)

(Colarusso, et al., 2013)

IDEA

(IDEA, 2006 & Special, 2016)

(IDEA, 2006 & Special, 2016)

Multi-Disciplinary Team review student’s  history in school, family, learning

opportunities, specialist and testing results to determine eligibility.

IEP Team  formed with general education teacher

and special education teacher, and school representatives, administrators, advocates

specialists, and parent (child if appropriate)

IDEA

IDEA Yes

(IDEA, 2006 & Special, 2016)

(IDEA, 2006 & Special, 2016)

(IDEA, 2006 & Special, 2016)

Parent is participates in the process and teams

IDEA

(IDEA, 2006 & Special, 2016)

HI DOE

HI DOE

HI DOE

HI DOE

HI DOE

(IDEA, 2006 & Special, 2016)

HI DOE

(IDEA, 2006 & Special Education Section of the Office of Curriculum, Instruction, and Student Support, 2016).

Yes

HI DOE

HI DOEIDEA

(IDEA, 2006 & Special, 2016)

Referral for Special Education Evaluation: Meet criteria of

significant, persistent, and inherent?

Parent participates in the IEP team

IDEA (IDEA, 2006 & Special, 2016)

School will provide a          written response to a       request within 15 days.

No

References

Americans with disabilities act 1990, as amended (ADA), § 12101 (2008).

Colarusso, R. P., O’Rourke, C. M., & Leontovich, M. A. (2013). Special education for ALL teachers(6th ed.). USA: Kendall Hunt Publishing Company.

Individuals with disabilities education act (IDEA), 20 U.S.C. 1412(a)(5)U.S.C. 300.8 (2006).

Office of Curriculum, Instruction, and Student Support. (2014a). In Hawai’i State Department of Education (Ed.), Equal educational opportunity for students who are disabled.

Office of Curriculum, Instruction, and Student Support. (2014b). In Hawai’i State Department of Education (Ed.), Rights of parent and students under section 504, subpart D and hawaii law and regulations.

Special Education Section of the Office of Curriculum, Instruction, and Student Support. (2016). In Hawai’i State Department of Education (Ed.),Special education: Is it for your child?

Construct IEP Parents disagree with determination?

IEP will contain:

Current academic output Goals: annual and shorter term Special education and other services provided and by whom General education and special education classroom time Service start and ending dates Criteria for evaluating – at least yearly

Construct a 504 plan that allows the student to participate and learn equally from the education provided to all students in the least restrictive environment.

Request mediation and due process within the law such as an impartial hearing in civil court. May have counsel. This is codified in The Education of for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (Public Law 94-142).

“An IEP is a written statement about the  educational program for a child with a  disability.”

Management Tool Evaluation Device

IDEA

HI DOE

HI DOE

HI DOE

Yes

504

Yes

Hawai’i State Department of Education uses the Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) under IDEA, Chapter 60, to meet these requirements because IDEA is more detailed, ensuring the 504 is met.

HI DOE

(IDEA, 2006 & Special, 2016)

(IDEA, 2006 & Special, 2016)

(IDEA, 2006 & Special, 2016)

(Office, 2014b)

(Office of Curriculum, Instruction,  and Student Support, 2014a)

Student has IEP

Review annually at a minimum

Student has 504 Plan

(IDEA, 2006 & Special, 2016)

(Colarusso, et al., 2013; IDEA, 2006; Office, 2014b; & Special, 2016)

(Office, 2014a)

(Americans with Disabilities Act 1990, as amended (ADA), 2008, & Office of Curriculum, Instruction, and Student Support, 2014b)

Determine if a disability exists under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of

1973 504

ADA

ADA

No

Often a learning challenge is noticed by a parent when the disability is severe or physical. Other issues might not be noticed until a child is in school and even

in the lower elementary grades. Once noticed, a teacher or parent might consider that some sort of intervention might be needed and choose to pursue that

possibility. The special education process can be confusing and daunting to even the most seasoned parent, guardian, or teacher of an exceptional student. A

breakdown of the process from the parents’ viewpoint outlining the roles of the parent or guardian, school, and student can help.

Students’ Role

Perhaps the simplest role to describe is that of students. They must participate in testing or evaluation if their parent permits (Individuals with Disabilities

Education Act (IDEA), 2006). Furthermore, in order to help others help them, they must communicate with the adults in the process to the best of their ability

when asked for information and when they are able to participate in the team meetings regarding their own education (Colarusso, R. P., O’Rourke, C. M., &

Leontovich, M. A., 2013).

Parents’ or Guardians’ Role

Parents and guardians may initiate the special education process at any time if they notice their student might exhibit any learning or behavior struggles

(IDEA, 2006). Sometimes parents notice issues themselves or may be told by a physician, teacher, or child care provider. Either way, it behoove the parents to

keep a record of problems, symptoms, and a timeline of when these happened (Colarusso, et al., 2013). Records will help when providing information to

request a referral for special education and for any team meetings that may follow (IDEA, 2006).

Whether the special education process was started by the parent or school, there are rights and safeguards for parents and students built into the process. One is

that a parent must give permission for testing in order for it to occur (IDEA, 2006). Other rights in this process include, but are not limited to, access to student

records, test scores, and evaluations, as well as participation in meetings regarding their student in the referral, Individual Education Plan (IEP), or 504 Plan

process (IDEA, 2006 & Office of Curriculum, Instruction, and Student Support, 2014a). In Hawai’i, if a student is eligible for special education services, they

are provided at no cost to the parent (Special Education Section of the Office of Curriculum, Instruction, and Student Support, 2016).

If a student is found ineligible for an IEP or 504 or the parents disagree with determinations made during the process, they have a rights to resolution

(Colarusso, et al., 2013; IDEA, 2006; Office of Curriculum, Instruction, and Student Support, 2014b; Special, 2016). This includes “mediation, facilitation,

conciliation, written complaint and a due process impartial hearing” (Special, 2016).

School Role

Last, the school obviously has a role in the process. There is built­in Universal Screening at the school to help find student that may have issues that affect

learning (Colarusso, et al., 2013). Teachers and support staff also provide individualized interventions and modifications to the general education for students

that are not in special education in order to assist the student in remaining in general education if possible (Colarusso, et al., 2013). If that does not work, then

the school may contact the parent to proceed with a special education evaluation (IDEA, 2006 & Special, 2016).

The school is also the first place where a parent may go to request information or a referral for special education if they detect something before the school

does, which is often the case (IDEA, 2008 & Special, 2016). The educators, administrators, support staff, special education teachers, and specialists that work

in the school have a stake in the well­being of the student (Colarusso, et al., 2013). These are the folks that, with the parent, will help determine eligibility and

an IEP or 504 Plan (IDEA, 2008 & Special, 2016). Additionally, this where most, if not all, services will be provided (Special, 2016).

The IEP is the management tool that the school uses to provide appropriate special education services. If an IEP is not needed, then a school may consider a

504 Plan to provide accommodations and modifications for students with disabilities (Office, 2014b). The plan will provide for and describe the least

restrictive environment (LRE) that will provide the required Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) (Office, 2014a). In Hawai’i, the FAPE is provided

under IDEA so the plan is more detailed than required, ensuring all 504 rules are met (Office, 2014a).

The summary of the roles in special education from the viewpoint of the parent seem overwhelming a first. Overtime, with the help of people, articles,

organization, and the flowchart, the process may become more clear. If not, check out your local school or alma mater for assistance.

References

Colarusso, R. P., O’Rourke, C. M., & Leontovich, M. A. (2013). Special education for ALL teachers(6th ed.). USA: Kendall Hunt Publishing Company.

Individuals with disabilities education act (IDEA), 20 U.S.C. 1412(a)(5)U.S.C. 300.8 (2006).

Office of Curriculum, Instruction, and Student Support. (2014a). In Hawai’i State Department of Education (Ed.), Equal educational opportunity for students

who are disabled.

Office of Curriculum, Instruction, and Student Support. (2014b). In Hawai’i State Department of Education (Ed.), Rights of parent and students under section

504, subpart D and Hawaii law and regulations.

Special Education Section of the Office of Curriculum, Instruction, and Student Support. (2016). In Hawai’i State Department of Education (Ed.), Special

education: Is it for your child?

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