Copyright James Hardy, Christopher Foster, and Gloria Zúñiga y Postigo With Good Reason: A Guide to Critical Thinking Editor in Chief, AVP: Steve Wainwright Executive Editor: Anna Lustig Development Editor: Rebecca Paynter Assistant Editor: Jessica Sarra Editorial Assistant: Lukas Schulze Production Editor: Catherine Morris Media Production: Amanda Nixon, LSF Editorial Copy Editor: Lauri Scherer, LSF Editorial Photo Researcher: Amanda Nixon, LSF Editorial Cover Design: Bambang Suparman Ibrahim Printing Services: Bordeaux Production Services: Lachina Permission Editor: D’Stair Permissions Agency Cover Image: juuce/iStock and espiegle/iStock ISBN-10: 1621785661 ISBN-13: 978-1-62178-566-8 Copyright © 2015 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. GRANT OF PERMISSION TO PRINT: The copyright owner of this material hereby grants the holder of this publication the right to print these materials for personal use. The holder of this material may print the materials herein for personal use only. Any print, reprint, reproduction or distribution of these materials for commercial use without the express written consent of the copyright owner constitutes a violation of the U.S. Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C. §§ 101-810, as amended. About the Authors James Hardy, Ashford University Dr. James Hardy is part of the core faculty of the Humanities & Science department at Ashford University. He obtained a PhD in philosophy from Indiana University, a master’s degree in philosophy from the University of Washington, and bachelor’s degrees in philosophy and psychology from Utah State University. He has taught philosophy at multiple universities since 1998 and has had the opportunity to teach across the general education spectrum, including courses in algebra, speech, English, and physics. Dr. Hardy’s favorite part of teaching is watching students get excited about learning, helping them achieve their dreams, and seeing their excitement as new worlds of knowledge open up to them. Dr. Hardy loves spending time outdoors hiking, backpacking, and canoeing—especially when he can do so with family members. He has lived all over the United States and has always found beauty and natural wonders wherever he has lived. The only time he is happier than when he is in nature is when he is spending time with his family. Christopher Foster, Ashford University Dr. Christopher Foster is lead faculty of the Humanities & Science department at Ashford University. He holds a PhD in philosophy with a specialization in logic and language and a master’s degree in philosophy from the University of Kansas (KU). His undergraduate work was completed at the University of California–Davis, where he earned bachelor’s degrees in mathematics and philosophy. Dr. Foster began his career as a graduate teaching assistant at KU and went on to teach at Brigham Young University and Utah Valley University. Dr. Foster has a passion for philosophy and believes that digging deeply into life’s ultimate questions is often the best way to improve students’ critical thinking and writing skills. He lives in Orem, Utah, with his wife, Cherie, and two daughters, Avery and Adia. Gloria Zúñiga y Postigo, Ashford University Dr. Gloria Zúñiga y Postigo is part of the core faculty of the Humanities & Science department at Ashford University. She earned a PhD in philosophy from the University at Buffalo, specializing in ontology, ethics, and philosophy of economics. Her previous studies are in philosophy at the University of California–Berkeley and economics at California State University–East Bay. Dr. Zúñiga y Postigo’s present research interests include examinations of the effect in our experiences of moral, aesthetic, and economic phenomena; and value in the Brentano School, the Menger School, and the Göttingen Circle scholars. Teaching philosophy is one her greatest passions. She especially enjoys teaching informal logic, because it empowers students with a tool for distinguishing truth from the mere appearance of truth, thereby making it possible for them to achieve fulfilling lives with greater efficacy. Acknowledgments The authors would like to acknowledge the people who made significant contributions to the development of this text: Anna Lustig, executive editor; Rebecca Paynter, development editor; Jessica Sarra, assistant editor; Lukas Schulze, editorial assistant; Catherine Morris, production editor; Amanda Nixon, media production; and Lauri Scherer and LSF Editorial, copy editors. Additional thanks go to Justin Harrison and Marc Joseph for their work creating and accuracy checking the ancillary materials for this text. The authors would also like to thank the following reviewers, as well as other anonymous reviewers, for their valuable feedback and insight: Justin Harrison, Ashford University Mark Hébert, Austin College Marc Joseph, Mills College Stephen Krogh, Ashford University Renee Levant, Ashford University Andrew Magrath, Kent State University Zachary Martin, Florida State University John McAteer, Ashford University Bradley Thames, Ashford University Finally, but not least importantly, the authors would like to acknowledge their respective spouses—Teresa Hardy, Cherie Farnes, and Jacob Arfwedson—for their loving understanding of the long hours that this project demanded, as well as all characters in popular culture (for example, Sherlock Holmes, Mr. Spock, and Dr. House) who have kept logic present in everyday conversations. The rewards of our work are enriched by the former and reassured by the latter. Preface With Good Reason: A Guide to Critical Thinking examines the specific ways we use language to reason about things. The study of logic improves our ability to think. It forces us to pay closer attention to the way language is used (and misused). It helps make us better at providing good reasons for our decisions. With Good Reason: A Guide to Critical Thinking seeks to help you examine and develop these abilities in order to improve them and to avoid being persuaded by the faulty reasoning of others. Textbook Features With Good Reason: A Guide to Critical Thinking includes a number of features to help students understand key concepts and think critically: Everyday Logic boxes give students the opportunity to see principles applied to a variety of real-world scenarios. A Closer Look boxes give students the chance to explore more in-depth concepts and issues in critical thinking. Figures illustrate a variety of concepts in easy-to-understand ways. Practice Problems provide an opportunity for students to exercise the knowledge they have learned in each chapter. Knowledge Checks test preconceptions about and comprehension of each chapter’s topics and lead to a personalized reading plan based on these results. Moral of the Story boxes and Chapter Summaries review the key ideas and takeaways in each chapter. Interactive Features in the e-book allow students to engage with the content on a more dynamic level. Animated scenarios in Logic in Action show students how logic might be used in real life. Consider This interactions invite students to think about various issues in more depth. Interactive exercises in Connecting the Dots give students further opportunities to practice what they have learned. Key Terms list and define important vocabulary discussed in the chapter, offering an opportunity for a final review of chapter concepts. In the e-book, students can click on the term to reveal the definition and quiz themselves in the process. icon Accessible Anywhere. Anytime. With Constellation, faculty and students have full access to eTextbooks at their fingertips. The eTextbooks are instantly accessible on web, mobile, and tablet. iPhone To download the Constellation iPhone or iPad app, go to the App Store on your device, search for “Constellation for Ashford University,” and download the free application. You may log in to the application with the same username and password used to access Constellation on the web. NOTE: You will need iOS version 7.0 or higher. Android Tablet and Phone To download the Constellation Android app, go to the Google Play Store on your Android Device, search for “Constellation for Ashford University,” and download the free application. You may log in to the Android application with the same username and password used to access Constellation on the web. NOTE: You will need a tablet or phone running Android version 2.3 (Gingerbread) or higher. icon

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