Education

True / False

 

1. Johannes Müller held that whatever excites a particular   nerve establishes a special kind of energy unique to that nerve.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

General Principles     of Perception

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.01 –     Remember that we see because light strikes the retina, sending a message to     the brain.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

2. The coding of visual information in your brain results   in an exact duplicate of the object’s shape on the surface of the   cortex.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

General Principles     of Perception

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.01 –     Remember that we see because light strikes the retina, sending a message to     the brain.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

3. The cornea is an adjustable structure in the eye that   focuses light.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

4. Amacrine cells refine the input to ganglion cells,   enabling them to respond specifically to shapes, movement, or other   visual features.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

5. Shapes are more easily identified with peripheral vision   than foveal vision.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 –     List the properties of cones and rods.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

6. Photopigments are stable in the dark.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Visual Receptors:     Rods and Cones

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 –     List the properties of cones and rods.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

7. According to the trichromatic theory, we can perceive   only three colors.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Color Vision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 –     Explain the main features of color vision.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

8. The retinex theory accounts for the principle of color   constancy.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Color Vision

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 –     Explain the main features of color vision.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

9. An object’s location, color, and movement are all   processed in the same part of the visual cortex.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Primary Visual     Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

10. Lateral inhibition is the reduction of activity in one   neuron by activity in neighboring neurons.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Processing in the     Retina

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.05 –     Explain lateral inhibition in terms of the connections among neurons in the     retina.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

11. Parvocellular cells respond strongly to moving stimuli   and large overall patterns.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Further Processing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 –     Define and give examples of receptive fields.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

12. The ventral stream of visual processing is important   for identifying movement.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Ventral and     Dorsal Paths

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.3 Parallel     Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

13. Simple cells are found exclusively in the primary   visual cortex.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Primary Visual     Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 –     Define and give examples of receptive fields.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

14. A complex cell responds to a pattern of light in a   particular orientation.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Primary Visual     Cortex

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 –     Define and give examples of receptive fields.

 

TOPICS:  

5.2 How the Brain     Processes Visual Information

 

15. Infants are born with the ability to control their   visual attention.​

 

a.

True

 

b.

False

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

Detailed Analysis of     Shape

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.07 –     Describe research on how experiences alter development of the visual     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.3 Parallel     Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

Multiple Choice

 

16. The law of specific nerve energies states that ____.​

 

a.

​perception of a     repeated stimulus fades

 

b.

​every stimulation     of the optic nerve is perceived as light

 

c.

​the speed of action     potentials varies depending on the strength of the stimulus

 

d.

​any stimulation     above the threshold produces an action potential

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Analyze

 

REFERENCES:  

General Principles     of Perception

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.01 –     Remember that we see because light strikes the retina, sending a message to     the brain.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

17. According to the law of specific nerve energies, the   brain tells the difference between one sensory modality and another by   ____.​

 

a.

​which     neurotransmitter is released

 

b.

​which neurons are     active

 

c.

​the velocity of the     action potentials

 

d.

​the amplitude of     the action potentials

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

General Principles     of Perception

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.01 –     Remember that we see because light strikes the retina, sending a message to     the brain.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

18. In the human retina, messages go from receptors at the   back of the eye to ____.​

 

a.

​retina cells

 

b.

​bipolar cells

 

c.

​ganglion cells

 

d.

​spiny cells

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

19. Light enters the eye through an opening in the center   of the iris called the ____. ​

 

a.

​retina

 

b.

​cornea

 

c.

​pupil

 

d.

​macula

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

20. Bipolar cells send their messages to ____, which are   located close to the center of the eye.​

 

a.

​spiny cells

 

b.

​cornea cells

 

c.

​bipolar cells

 

d.

​ganglion cells

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

21. Light from the right half of the world strikes which   part of the retina?​

 

a.

​the left half

 

b.

​the right half

 

c.

​the whole retina     equally

 

d.

​It depends of the     wavelength.

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

22. In what order does visual information pass through the   retina?​

 

a.

​receptor cells,     ganglion cells, bipolar cells

 

b.

​ganglion cells,     bipolar cells, receptor cells

 

c.

​receptor cells,     bipolar cells, ganglion cells

 

d.

​bipolar cells,     receptor cells, ganglion cells

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

 

23. Various types of ____ cells refine the input to   ganglion cells, enabling them to respond specifically to shapes,   movement, or other visual features.​

 

a.

​receptors

 

b.

​geniculate cells

 

c.

​amacrine cells

 

d.

​optic nerves

 

ANSWER:  

 

DIFFICULTY:  

Bloom’s: Understand

 

REFERENCES:  

The Eye and Its     Connections to the Brain

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  

KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 –     Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral     cortex.

 

TOPICS:  

5.1 Visual Coding

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