Education

TRENDS AND ISSUES IN INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY

Third Edition

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Edited by

Robert A. Reiser Florida State University

John V. Dempsey University of South Alabama

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 EDW 15 14 13 12 11

ISBN-10: 0-13-256358-4 ISBN-13: 978-0-13-256358-1

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Reiser, Robert A. Trends and issues in instructional design and technology/edited by Robert A. Reiser, John V. Dempsey.—3rd ed.

p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-13-256358-1 (alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-13-256358-4 (alk. paper) 1. Instructional systems—Design. 2. Educational technology. I. Reiser, Robert A. II. Dempsey, John V. III. Title. LB1028.38.T74 2012 371.33—dc22

2010052044

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Preface vi Introduction ix Robert A. Reiser and John V. Dempsey

SECTION I DEFINING THE FIELD 1

Chapter 1 What Field Did You Say You Were In? Defining and Naming Our Field 1

Robert A. Reiser

Chapter 2 Characteristics of Instructional Design Models 8 Robert M. Branch and M. David Merrill

Chapter 3 A History of Instructional Design and Technology 17 Robert A. Reiser

SECTION II THEORIES AND MODELS OF LEARNING AND INSTRUCTION 35

Chapter 4 Psychological Foundations of Instructional Design 35 Marcy P. Driscoll

Chapter 5 Constructivism in Practical and Historical Context 45 Brent G. Wilson

Chapter 6 The Learning Sciences: Where They Came From and What It Means for Instructional Designers 53

Christopher Hoadley and James P. Van Haneghan

Chapter 7 Designing for Problem Solving 64 David Jonassen

Chapter 8 Instructional Theory and Technology for a Postindustrial World 75 Charles M. Reigeluth

Chapter 9 Motivation, Volition, and Performance 84 John M. Keller and Markus Deimann

Contents

iii

iv CONTENTS

SECTION III EVALUATING AND MANAGING INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS 96

Chapter 10 Evaluation in Instructional Design: A Comparison of Evaluation Models 96

R. Burke Johnson and Walter Dick

Chapter 11 An Introduction to Return on Investment 105 Jack J. Phillips and Patricia P. Phillips

Chapter 12 Managing On-Site and Virtual Design Teams 116 Brenda C. Litchfield

Chapter 13 Managing Scarce Resources in Training Organizations 126 James J. Goldsmith and Richard D. Busby

SECTION IV PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT 135

Chapter 14 The Development and Evolution of Human Performance Improvement 135

Harold D. Stolovitch and Bonnie Beresford

Chapter 15 Performance Support 147 Frank Nyugen

Chapter 16 Knowledge Management and Learning: Perfect Together 158 Marc J. Rosenberg

Chapter 17 Informal Learning 169 Allison Rossett and Bob Hoffman

SECTION V TRENDS AND ISSUES IN VARIOUS SETTINGS 178 Chapter 18 Instructional Design in Business and Industry 178

Monica W. Tracey and Gary R. Morrison

Chapter 19 Instructional Design Opportunities in Military Education and Training Environments 187

Mary F. Bratton-Jeffery and Arthur B. Jeffery

Chapter 20 Performance, Instruction, and Technology in Health Care Education 197 Craig Locatis

Chapter 21 Instructional Designers and P-12 Technology Integration 208 Deborah L. Lowther and Steven M. Ross

Chapter 22 Five University Roles for Designers From Three Nations 218 Brenda C. Litchfield, J. V. Dempsey, Peter Albion, Jacquie McDonald, and Junko Nemoto

SECTION VI GLOBAL TRENDS AND ISSUES IN IDT 229

Chapter 23 Developing Learning to Meet Complex Challenges for an Undivided World 229

Jan Visser

Chapter 24 Instructional Design and Technology in an Asian Context: Focusing on Japan and Korea 239

Katsuaki Suzuki and Insung Jung

CONTENTS v

Chapter 25 Instructional Design in Europe 248 Phil Green

SECTION VII GETTING AN IDT POSITION AND SUCCEEDING AT IT 256

Chapter 26 Getting an Instructional Design Position: Lessons from a Personal History 256

Robert A. Reiser

Chapter 27 Getting a Job in Business and Industry 263 Gabrielle K. Gabrielli and Robert K. Branson

Chapter 28 Professional Organizations and Publications in Instructional Design and Technology 273

James D. Klein, Nick Rushby, and Yuyan Su

SECTION VIII NEW DIRECTIONS IN INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY 281

Chapter 29 E-Learning and Instructional Design 281 J. V. Dempsey and Richard N. Van Eck

Chapter 30 Learning Objects 290 Susan Smith Nash

Chapter 31 Networks, Web 2.0, and the Connected Learner 299 Terry Anderson

Chapter 32 Using Rich Media Wisely 309 Ruth Colvin Clark and Richard E. Mayer

Chapter 33 Games . . . and . . . Learning 321 Valerie J. Shute, Lloyd P. Rieber, and Richard Van Eck

Chapter 34 Designing in Virtual Worlds 333 J. V. Dempsey, Rebecca Reese, and Stasia Weston

SECTION IX CURRENT ISSUES IN INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY 342

Chapter 35 Professional Ethics: Rules Applied to Practice 342 Sharon E. Smaldino, J. Ana Donaldson, and Mary Herring

Chapter 36 Diversity and Accessibility 348 Joél P. Lewis and Stephen M. Sullivan

Chapter 37 The Changing Nature of Design 358 Elizabeth Boling and Kennon M. Smith

Chapter 38 Debate About the Benefits of Different Levels of Instructional Guidance 367

Richard E. Clark and Michael J. Hannafin

Epilogue 383 Robert A. Reiser and John V. Dempsey

Index 385

CHAPTER NUMBER Chapter Title vi

This book provides readers with a clear picture of the field of instructional design and technol- ogy. Many textbooks in the IDT field focus on the skills needed by instructional designers and technologists. However, we believe that professionals in the field should be able to do more than just perform the skills associated with it. They should also be able to clearly describe the nature of the field, know and understand the field’s history and its current status, and describe the trends and issues that have affected it and will be likely to do so in the future. This book will help readers attain these goals.

Organization of the Book Organized into nine sections, the first section of the book focuses on foundational issues—defining key terms in the field and presenting its history. The second section, addressing the theories and models of learning and instruction that serve as the basis for the field, discusses wide arrays of viewpoints ranging from cognitive and behavioral perspectives to some of the views of teaching and learning associated with constructivism and the learning sciences. Two of the often over- looked phases of the instructional design process, namely, evaluating and managing instructional programs and projects, receive attention in section three, with particular emphasis on current methods of evaluation, including return on investment, and on how to manage design teams and scarce resources. The fourth section of the book hones in on key ideas and practices associated with performance improvement. A variety of non-instructional solutions to performance problems, such as performance support, knowledge management, and informal learning, are described. The fifth section of the book describes what IDT professionals do in a variety of work settings, including business and industry, the military, health care, P–12 schools, and higher education. Global trends in instructional design and technology, section six of the book, offers insights about the instructional design practices and technologies employed in parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Section seven focuses on how to get an IDT position and succeed at it. In addition to offering suggestions to job seekers, the section describes some of the organizations and publica- tions that will foster the growth of IDT professionals. The eighth section explores new directions in the field, including the impact of recent trends such as social networking, virtual worlds, and game-based learning. The last section of the book addresses some of the current issues in the field of instructional design and technology. Topics such as diversity, accessibility, professional ethics, and the benefits of different levels of instructional guidance are among the current-day issues addressed.

Preface

vi

PREFACE vii

What’s New in This Edition? The third edition of this book differs significantly from the second edition. One major difference is the inclusion of 18 new chapters in this edition. Many of these chapters provide an in-depth look at topics that were either not covered, or briefly touched upon, in the second edition. These thoroughly new chapters focus on:

• Constructivism (Chapter 5) • The Learning Sciences (Chapter 6) • Designing for Problem Solving (Chapter 7) • Instructional Theory for a Postindustrial World (Chapter 8) • Return on Investment (Chapter 11) • Performance Support (Chapter 15) • Instructional Design in P–12 Education (Chapter 21) • Instructional Design in the Developing World (Chapter 23) • Instructional Design in Asia (Chapter 24) • Instructional Design in Europe (Chapter 25) • Reusability and Reusable Design (Chapter 30) • Web 2.0 and Social Networking (Chapter 31) • Game-Based Learning (Chapter 33) • Virtual Worlds (Chapter 34) • Professional Ethics (Chapter 35) • Diversity and Accessibility (Chapter 36) • The Changing Nature of Design (Chapter 37) • The Benefits of Different Levels of Instructional Guidance: A Debate (Chapter 38)

In addition to these new chapters, many of the other chapters have been extensively revised. These chapters include:

• Characteristics of Instructional Design Models (Chapter 2). This chapter now includes an entirely new major section devoted to whole task approaches to the instructional design process.

• A History of Instructional Design and Technology (Chapter 3). New sections discuss recent increases in the use of digital media and informal learning in a wide variety of instructional settings, and the impact of these events on instructional design practices.

• Motivation, Volition, and Performance (Chapter 9). An extensive discussion of volition has been added to this chapter.

• Evaluation in Instructional Design (Chapter 10). Descriptions of several evaluation models that were not previously discussed (i.e., Brinkerhoff, Patton, and Rossi) have been added to this chapter.

• Informal Learning (Chapter 17). This chapter now contains an extensive discussion of how reliance on informal learning has increased as a result of the expanding use of Web 2.0 and social networking tools.

• Five University Roles for Designers from Three Nations (Chapter 22) now includes an au- thor from Japan, who describes the Japanese experience, as well as authors from Australia and the United States.

• Professional Organizations and Publications in Instructional Design and Technology (Chapter 28) has been revised and updated and includes twenty professional organizations and fifty publications of interest to members of the IDT community.

• E-Learning and Instructional Design (Chapter 29) explores the primary drivers of e-learning such as convergence, virtual social learning communities, and personal technologies.

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