Computer Science

Network Defense and

Countermeasures

by Chuck Easttom

Chapter 14: Physical Security and Disaster Recovery

© 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 14 Physical Security and Disaster

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Objectives

 Understand Physical Security

 Implement Physical Security

 Understand Disaster Recovery

 Understand Business Continuity

Definition: Physical Security

 The physical measures and their associated

procedures to safeguard and protect against:

 Damage

 Loss

 Theft

© 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 14 Physical Security and Disaster

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Required Physical Controls

 Perimeter and Building Grounds

 Building Entry Points

 Inside the Building – Building Floors / Offices

 Data Centers or Server Room Security

 Computer Equipment Protection

© 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 14 Physical Security and Disaster

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Examples of Threats

 Emergencies

 Fire and Smoke Contaminants

 Building Collapse or Explosion

 Utility Loss (Power, AC, Heat)

 Water Damage (Broken Pipes)

© 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 14 Physical Security and Disaster

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Fire Prevention

 Use Fire Resistant Materials for Walls, Doors, Furnishings, etc.

 Reduce the Amount of Combustible Papers Around Electrical Equipment

 Provide Fire Prevention Training to Employees  REMEMBER: Life Safety is the Most Important

Issue!

 Conduct Fire Drills on All Shifts So that Personnel Know How to Exit A Building

© 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 14 Physical Security and Disaster

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Fire Detection

 Automatic Dial-Up Fire Alarm

 System Dials the Local Fire or Police Department and

Plays a Prerecorded Message When a Fire is

Detected

 Usually Used in Conjunction with One of the Other

Type of Fire Detectors

 This Type of System Can Be Easily/Intentionally

Subverted

 Combinations are Usually Used for The Best

Effectiveness in Detecting a Fire

© 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 14 Physical Security and Disaster

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Fire Suppression

 Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Foam, Inert Gas and

Dry Power Extinguishers DISPLACE Oxygen

to Suppress a Fire

 CO2 Is a Risk to Humans (Because of

Oxygen Displacement)

 Water Suppresses the Temperature

Required to Sustain a Fire

© 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 14 Physical Security and Disaster

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Fire Suppression – Halon

 Halon Banned for New Systems Under 1987

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete

the Ozone Layer

 Began Implementation of Ban in 1992

 Any New Installations of Fire Suppression systems

Must Use Alternate Options

 EU Requires Removal of Halon for Most Applications

 Halon Replacements:

 FM200,

© 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 14 Physical Security and Disaster

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Safety Fire Extinguishers

 Class A – Ordinary combustibles such as

wood or paper.

 Class B – Flammable liquids such as grease,

oil, or gasoline.

 Class C – Electrical Equipment

 Class D – Flammable Metals

© 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 14 Physical Security and Disaster

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Fire Suppression – Water

 Wet Pipe  Always Contains Water

 Most Popular and Reliable

 165° Fuse Melts  Can Freeze in Winter

 Pipe Breaks Can Cause Floods

 Dry Pipe  No Water in Pipe

 Preferred for Computer Installations

 Water Held Back by Clapper

 Air Blows Out of Pipe, Water Flows

© 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 14 Physical Security and Disaster

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Fire Suppression – Water

 Deluge

 Type of Dry Pipe

 Water Discharge is Large

 Not Recommended for Computer Installations

 Preaction

 Most Recommended for Computer Room

 Combines Both Dry and Wet Pipes

 Water Released into Pipe First Then After Fuse Melts in Nozzle the Water is Dispersed

© 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 14 Physical Security and Disaster

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What Is a Disaster

 Any natural or man-made event that disrupts

the operations of a business

in such a significant way that a considerable

and coordinated effort is required to achieve

a recovery.

© 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 14 Physical Security and Disaster

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How BCP and DRP

Support Security  BCP (Business Continuity Planning) and

DRP (Disaster Recovery Planning)

 Security pillars: C-I-A

 Confidentiality

 Integrity

 Availability

 BCP and DRP directly support availability

© 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 14 Physical Security and Disaster

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BCP and DRP Differences

and Similarities  BCP

 Activities required to ensure the continuation of

critical business processes in an organization

 Alternate personnel, equipment, and facilities

 Often includes non-IT aspects of business

 DRP

 Assessment, salvage, repair, and eventual

restoration of damaged facilities and systems

 Often focuses on IT systems

© 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 14 Physical Security and Disaster

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The Role of Prevention

 Not prevention of the disaster itself

 Prevention of surprise and disorganized response

 Reduction in impact of a disaster

 Better equipment bracing

 Better fire detection and suppression

 Contingency plans that provide [near] continuous

operation of critical business processes

 Prevention of extended periods of downtime

© 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 14 Physical Security and Disaster

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Running a BCP / DRP Project

 Main phases

 Pre-project activities

 Perform a Business Impact Assessment (BIA)

 Develop business continuity and recovery

plans

 Test resumption and recovery plans

© 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 14 Physical Security and Disaster

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Performing a Business

Impact Analysis  Asset Analysis

 Purchase cost, development cost, administrative

cost, maintenance cost.

 Survey critical processes

 Perform risk analyses and threat assessment

 Determine Maximum Tolerable Downtime

(MTD)

 Establish key recovery targets

© 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 14 Physical Security and Disaster

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RAID

 RAID 0 (striped disks) distributes data across multiple disks in a way that gives improved speed at

any given instant. NO fault tolerance

 RAID 1 mirrors the contents of the disks, making a form of 1:1 ratio realtime backup. Also called

mirroring

 RAID 3 or 4 (striped disks with dedicated parity) combines three or more disks in a way that protects

data against loss of any one disk. Fault tolerance is achieved by adding an extra disk to the array and

dedicating it to storing parity information. The storage capacity of the array is reduced by one disk

 RAID 5 (striped disks with distributed parity) combines three or more disks in a way that protects data

against the loss of any one disk. It is similar to RAID 3 but the parity is not stored on one dedicated

drive, instead parity information is interspersed across the drive array. The storage capacity of the

array is a function of the number of drives minus the space needed to store parity

 RAID 6 (striped disks with dual parity) combines four or more disks in a way that protects data against

loss of any two disks.

 RAID 1+0 (or 10) is a mirrored data set (RAID 1) which is then striped (RAID 0), hence the “1+0”

name. A RAID 1+0 array requires a minimum of four drives: two mirrored drives to hold half of the

striped data, plus another two mirrored for the other half of the data.

© 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 14 Physical Security and Disaster

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Backups

 Full – all changes

 Differential – all changes since last full backup

 Incremental – all changes since last backup of

any type

© 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 14 Physical Security and Disaster

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Summary

 Physical security involves lighting, locks,

fences, and physical access control.

 Fire suppression systems are an important

part of physical security.

 A Business Impact Analysis must be done

before disaster recovery.

 RAID is a fundamental part of fault tolerance.

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Summary cont.

 Disaster Recovery Plans are aimed at

restoring full normal operations.

 Business Continuity Plans are designed to

maintain some level of operations until full

recovery can be achieved.

 Data backups are a significant part of fault

tolerance and disaster recovery.

© 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 14 Physical Security and Disaster

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