Chemistry

Pharm Final Exam Study Guide

1. Recognize the various dosage forms and their onset of action.

Dosage forms

Various dosage forms

· Enteral- Tabs, caps, pills, oral soluble wafers, elixirs, suspensions, syrups, emulsions, solutions, lozenges or troches, rectal suppositories, sublingual or buccal tabs.

· Parenteral- injectable forms, solutions, suspensions, emulsions, powders for reconstitution.

· Topical- aerosols, ointments, creams, pastes, powders, solutions, foams, gels, transdermal patches, inhalers, rectal and vaginal suppositories.

Absorption rates from fastest to slowest

· Oral disintegration, buccal tabs, and oral soluble wafers, liquids, elixirs, syrups, suspension solutions, powders, caps, tabs, coated tabs and enteric-coated tabs.

2. Make note of all the pregnancy category x medications

3. Know your reversal agents/antidotes

· Flumazenil- Benzo antagonist

· Naloxone (narcan)- opioid overdose

4. Know example medications for each pharmacologic class

5. Drug of choice medications for specific ailments

6. Contraindications of herbal products

· Chamomile- increases risk of bleeding with anti-coagulants

· Cranberry- decreased elimination of many drugs that are renally excreted

· Echinacea- possible interference with or counteraction to immunosuppressant drugs and antivirals

· Evening primrose- possible interaction with antipsychotic drugs

· Garlic- possible interference with hypoglycemic therapy and the anticoagulant warfarin (Coumadin)

· Gingko- may increase risk for bleeding with anticoagulants (warfarin, heparin) and antiplatelet (aspirin, clopidogrel)

· Ginger root- at high dosages, possible interference with cardiac, antidiabetic and anticoagulant drugs

· Hawthorn- may lead to toxic levels of cardiac glycosides (e.g., digitalis)

· Kava- may increase the effect of barbiturates and alcohol

· Saw palmetto- may change the effects of hormones in oral contraceptive drugs, patches, or hormonal replacement therapies

· Valerian- increases nervous system depression if used with sedatives

· St. johns wort- may lead to serotonin syndrome if used with other serotonergic drugs (ex. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). May interact with many drugs including antidepressants, antihistamines, digoxin, immunosuppressant’s, theophylline and warfarin.

· Grape fruit- decreases metabolism of drugs used for erectile dysfunction, estrogens, and psychotherapeutic. Increases risk for toxicity of immunosuppressant’s, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, and some psychotherapeutic drugs increases intensity and duration of effects of caffeine.

7. Effective patient education techniques

8. Allergy considerations with medications

9. Pharmacokinetics of insulin preparations

10. Signs/symptoms of toxicity associated with medications that have a narrow therapeutic index

11. Therapeutic ranges of medications that have a narrow therapeutic index

12. Medications that are co-administered with another medication to combat adverse effects

13. Laboratory values one would monitor to gauge a medications effectiveness/toxicity

14. Signs/symptoms of various disease states

15. Causes for specific disease states

16. Key terminology

17. Contraindications/black box warnings

18. Vitamins/minerals (roles they play, alternative names, what deficiencies lead to)

19. Significant interactions with alcohol (things beyond sedation)

20. Antacid formulations and their adverse effects

21. Barriers to patient cpmpleince and how to combat them

22. Rights of nursing and medication administration

23. Types of pharmacologic therapy

24. Lifestyle considerations when receiving pharmacological therapy

25. Mechanism of action of various medications

26. Key drugs

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