Chemistry

1-Consider the reaction when aqueous solutions of magnesium sulfate and manganese (II) nitrate are combined. The net ionic equation for this reaction is:

2-Consider the reaction when aqueous solutions of lead nitrate and aluminum sulfate are combined. The net ionic equation for this reaction is:

3-Consider the reaction when aqueous solutions of ammonium phosphate and sodium iodide are combined. The net ionic equation for this reaction is:

4-Consider the reaction when aqueous solutions of magnesium bromide and potassium phosphate are combined. The net ionic equation for this reaction is:

5-Consider the reaction when aqueous solutions of ammonium sulfide and magnesium sulfate are combined. The net ionic equation for this reaction is:

6-Consider the reaction when aqueous solutions of potassium nitrate and barium sulfide are combined. The net ionic equation for this reaction is:

7-Consider the reaction when aqueous solutions of sodium sulfide and potassium nitrate are combined. The net ionic equation for this reaction is:

8-Consider the reaction when aqueous solutions of ammonium phosphate and potassium nitrate are combined. The net ionic equation for this reaction is:

9-Consider the reaction when aqueous solutions of iron(III) nitrate and copper(II) sulfate are combined. The net ionic equation for this reaction is:

10-How many mL of 0.406 M HI are needed to dissolve 5.97 g of CaCO3? 2HI(aq) + CaCO3(s) image1.png CaI2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) image2.wmf

mL

11-A 0.5488 g sample of a pure soluble chloride compound is dissolved in water, and all of the chloride ion is precipitated asAgCl by the addition of an excess of silver nitrate. The mass of the resulting AgCl is found to be 1.1541 g. What is the mass percentage of chlorine in the original compound? image3.wmf

%

12-A student determines the aluminum content of a solution by first precipitating it as aluminum hydroxide, and then decomposing the hydroxide to aluminum oxide by heating. How many grams of aluminum oxide should the student obtain if her solution contains 51.0 mL of 0.583 M aluminum nitrate?

image4.wmf

g

13-Write a net ionic equation to show that hydrobromic acid, HBr, behaves as an acid in water.

14-Write a net ionic equation to show why solid potassium hydroxide, KOH (s), forms a basic solution when it dissolves in water.

15-The substance ethylamine is a weak nitrogenous base like ammonia. Write a net ionic equation to show how ethylamine, C2H5NH2, behaves as a base in water.

16-Write a net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs when aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide and hydrobromic acid are combined.

17-Write a net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs when aqueous solutions of potassium hydroxide andhypochlorous acid are combined.

18-Write a net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs when aqueous solutions of ammonia and acetic acid are combined

19-Write a net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs when aqueous solutions of hydrobromic acid and ammonia are combined

20-Write a net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs when excess hydriodic acid (aq) and lead(II) carbonate are combined.

21-Write a net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs when ammonium sulfide and excess hydriodic acid (aq) are combined.

22-What volume of a 0.138 M perchloric acid solution is required to neutralize 24.9 mL of a 0.196 M calcium hydroxidesolution? image5.wmf

mL perchloric acid

23-What volume of a 0.174 M potassium hydroxide solution is required to neutralize 28.3 mL of a 0.310 M hydrobromic acid solution? image6.wmf

mL potassium hydroxide

24-An aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide is standardized by titration with a 0.196 M solution of perchloric acid. If 24.9 mL of base are required to neutralize 12.6 mL of the acid, what is the molarity of the calcium hydroxide solution? image7.wmf

M calcium hydroxide

25-An aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide is standardized by titration with a 0.174 M solution of hydrobromic acid. If 28.3 mL of base are required to neutralize 24.0 mL of the acid, what is the molarity of the potassium hydroxidesolution? image8.wmf

M potassium hydroxide

26-A 14.0 g sample of an aqueous solution of perchloric acid contains an unknown amount of the acid. If 29.2 mL of 0.946 M sodium hydroxide are required to neutralize the perchloric acid, what is the percent by weight ofperchloric acid in the mixture? image9.wmf

% by weight

27-A 9.00 g sample of an aqueous solution of hydrobromic acid contains an unknown amount of the acid. If 24.9 mL of 1.17 M sodium hydroxide are required to neutralize the hydrobromic acid, what is the percent by weight of hydrobromic acid in the mixture? image10.wmf

% by weight

28-Potassium hydrogen phthalate is a solid, monoprotic acid frequently used in the laboratory to standardize strong base solutions. It has the unwieldy formula of KHC8H4O4. This is often written in shorthand notation as KHP. How many grams of KHP are needed to exactly neutralize 25.6 mL of a 0.537 M potassium hydroxide solution ? image11.wmf

grams KHC8H4O4

29-Potassium hydrogen phthalate is a solid, monoprotic acid frequently used in the laboratory to standardize strong base solutions. It has the unwieldy formula of KHC8H4O4. This is often written in shorthand notation as KHP. What volume of a 0.437 M potassium hydroxide solution is needed to exactly neutralize 2.76 grams of KHP ? ANSWER: image12.wmf

mL potassium hydroxide

30-

image13.png

The oxidation number of an element is the “charge” the element would have if all of its bonds were completely ionic; that is, if the electron pairs of each bond were transferred to the more electronegative atom. For monatomic ions the oxidation number is simply the charge of the ion. For covalently bonded elements the oxidation number is a bookkeeping device and does not mean that the element carries an actual charge. Determine the oxidation state for each of the elements below.

The oxidation state of

nitrogen

in

nitrite ion NO2-

is

image14.wmf

.

The oxidation state of

xenon

in

xenon gas Xe

is

image15.wmf

.

The oxidation state of

bromine

in

bromate ion BrO3-

is

image16.wmf

.

31-

image17.png

Use the rules (in order) to assign oxidation numbers to each of the elements in the compounds below.

boric acid

H

B

O

H3BO3

image18.wmf

image19.wmf

image20.wmf

hypochlorite ion

Cl

O

ClO-

image21.wmf

image22.wmf

periodic acid

H

I

O

HIO4

image23.wmf

image24.wmf

image25.wmf

32-

N2 + 4Fe(OH)2+ 4H2Oimage26.png4Fe(OH)3 + N2H4

In the above redox reaction, use oxidation numbers to identify the element oxidized, the element reduced, the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent.

name of the element oxidized:

image27.wmf

name of the element reduced:

image28.wmf

formula of the oxidizing agent:

image29.wmf

formula of the reducing agent:

image30.wmf

33-

Mn(OH)2 + HPbO2-image31.pngPb + MnO2+ H2O+ OH-

In the above redox reaction, use oxidation numbers to identify the element oxidized, the element reduced, the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent.

name of the element oxidized:

image32.wmf

name of the element reduced:

image33.wmf

formula of the oxidizing agent:

image34.wmf

formula of the reducing agent:

image35.wmf

34-A student is asked to standardize a solution of potassium hydroxide. He weighs out 1.02 g potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHC8H4O4, treat this as a monoprotic acid). It requires 36.9 mL of potassium hydroxide to reach the endpoint. A. What is the molarity of the potassium hydroxide solution? image36.wmf

M This potassium hydroxide solution is then used to titrate an unknown solution of hydrochloric acid. B. If 23.4 mL of the potassium hydroxide solution is required to neutralize 27.6 mL of hydrochloric acid, what is the molarity of the hydrochloric acid solution? image37.wmf

M

35-A student is asked to standardize a solution of sodium hydroxide. He weighs out 1.02 g potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHC8H4O4, treat this as a monoprotic acid). It requires 31.9 mL of sodium hydroxide to reach the endpoint. A. What is the molarity of the sodium hydroxide solution? image38.wmf

M This sodium hydroxide solution is then used to titrate an unknown solution of nitric acid. B. If 18.0 mL of the sodium hydroxide solution is required to neutralize 15.0 mL of nitric acid, what is the molarity of the nitric acid solution? image39.wmf

M

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