Chemistry

In the movie, “Raiders of the Lost Ark”, Indiana Jones takes a gold idol from a cave. The statue is resting on a table which is rigged with a weight sensor. The weight sensor can detect when the weight is removed and will set off a series of unfortunate accidents. To prevent this from happening, Indiana replaces the gold idol with a bag of sand. The volume of the gold idol is approximately 1.0 L. The density of gold is 19.3 g/mL and the density of sand is 2.3 g/mL.

1. a. Assuming the idol is pure gold, what volume would the bag of sand have to be in order to weigh exactly the same as the idol and not set off the booby-traps?

b. Let’s assume that Indiana is successful in removing the idol and returning with it to his laboratory. He decides to determine if it is really pure gold. He weighs the idol and measures the volume by a water displacement method. The results are: mass = 16.5 kg and volume of water displaced = 954 mL. Is the idol made of pure gold? Explain your answer based on the experimental results.

Introduction

Quantitative determination of blood alcohol (BAC) is one of the most common analyses performed in the forensic toxicology laboratory. GC with FIR (flame ionization detection) is the preferred technique.

Blood samples must be drawn by medical personnel and transported to the lab, where they are stored in a refrigerator. The blood tubes used for collection generally contain sodium fluoride, an anti-glycolytic, which inhibits enzyme reactions with glucose (recall that fermentation of glucose can produce alcohol!). Sample preparation is minimal and will vary by laboratory. Nearly all labs, however, will require use of an internal standard (discussed further below).

Quantitative analysis by GC is typically done using an autosampler. Even with this, the very small sample injection volumes and potential small changes in instrumental conditions, such as gas flow, might introduce other variations. One method commonly used to compensate for these difficulties is the use of internal standards.

The internal standard method involves spiking an exactly known quantity of a substance into every sample and standard. The area of the internal standard and the area of the analyte are determined, and then a ratio of these two is calculated by dividing the area of the analyte peak by the area of the internal standard peak. The result is called a peak area ratio (PAR). The idea is that even though the peak areas for a given sample may vary from one test to the next due to injection differences or instrumental variations, the ratio of the two peaks will be constant, since the variations will affect both substances equally. Then, when preparing the calibration curve, the PAR is plotted on the y-axis rather than the simple peak area.

A good internal standard has the following characteristics:

ü Yields a peak that is well resolved from other peaks

ü Has a retention time close to the analyte’s retention time

ü Normally, some structural similarity between the IS and analyte is desirable

ü Is a compound not readily available to the public and this not typically ingested

o This can be confirmed by using two Internal Standards (e.g., N-Propanol and Isobutanol)

§ The area ratio between the two internal standards should be a constant

There are two ways of introducing an internal standard into the analysis. One way is to dissolve the internal standard into the solvent used to dilute both samples and standards. A second way is to add an accurate and precise volume of concentrated internal standard solution to the samples and standards. The Internal Standard solution may contain salt (i.e., sodium chloride) to enhance the headspace analyses. Addition of salt reduces the solubility of alcohol in an aqueous solution.

For blood alcohol quantitative determinations, n-propanol is a commonly used internal standard. In the data set below, you are provided with peak areas for both ethanol and propanol. When you make the calibration curve, plot the PAR vs the concentration.

Quality control samples (QC) are a critical component of a forensic BAC. QC samples typically include:

Negative control (contains no ethanol)

Positive control (contains a known amount of ethanol)

Quality control requirements typically include:

Agreement between the calculated value found for a control and its true, assigned value

Agreement between the calculated ethanol concentrations in duplicate samples

Agreement between the retention times of calibrator and sample ethanol peaks and internal standard peaks

For this “dry lab” you will be given a set of data from a BAC run. You will need to determine the PAR, plot a calibration curve, determine the concentrations of the unknowns, and calculate the QC results to be sure they are within the pre-established limits.

Data
In a real world forensic BAC run, you would have two separate columns running these samples simultaneously. You would also determine acetone, isopropanol, and methanol. For this dry lab, however, we will only do calculations for ethanol on one column.

Concentration (g ethanol / 100 mL)

Peak area for ethanol

Retention time ethanol, min

Peak area for n-propanol (IS spiked at 0.05g/dL)

Retention time n-propanol min

Blank

0

1259

1.141

25649

1.991

Calibrator 1

0.0100

3975

1.139

24507

1.898

Calibrator 2

0.0500

21876

1.137

25565

2.010

Calibrator 3

0.0800

37561

1.140

24610

1.995

Calibrator 4

0.100

46003

1.142

24368

1.997

Calibrator 5

0.300

133987

1.138

25117

2.001

Calibrator 6

0.500

221397

1.140

24947

1.993

Negative control 1

3165

1.145

25387

2.011

Positive control 1

0.0800

35587

1.135

24991

1.993

Blood sample 1

?

67590

1.141

25619

1.990

Blood sample 1 duplicate

?

70345

1.138

25116

1.891

Blood sample 2

?

98171

1.144

24819

1.993

Blood sample 2 duplicate

?

110786

1.137

25038

2.011

Negative control 2

0

1590

1.143

25437

1.995

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