Chemistry

Pharmacology BIO 107

Homework #3

1) Do inhibitory neurotransmitters activate or inhibit receptors? Inhibit receptors

2) What is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain? gaba

3) What is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain? glutamate

4) What is different between GABAA receptors and GABAB receptors? GABAa- ion channels GABAb- metabotrophic receptor

5) How is GABA terminated? reuptake into both presynaptic nerve terminals and surrounding glial cells.

6) What is the receptor for Glutamate? What kind of receptor is it? Ionotrophic an ion channel

7) How is Glutamate terminated?  the synaptic cleft by excitatory amino-acid transporters

8) What role does dopamine play in the brain? Neurotransmitter that releases a “happy” chemical

9) Dopamine works via what kind of receptors? D1,D2,D3,D4,D5

10) How is the dopamine signal terminated?  reuptake back into the presynaptic neuron

11) What role does serotonin play in the brain? regulate anxiety, happiness, and mood

12) Serotonin is synthesized from what?  amino acid L-Tryptophan

13) What kind of receptors are there for serotonin? 5-hydroxytryptamine

14) How is the serotonin signal terminated?  reuptake or enzymatic breakdown

15) Will the inhibition of a serotonin reuptake inhibitor lead to sleepiness? A depressed mood? Yes; no

16) What is the role of a presynaptic serotonin receptor? inhibiting release of 5HT into the synaptic cleft

17) What is the difference between SSRIs and SNRIs? SNRIs work slightly differently than SSRIs, though both increase the amount of serotonin available in the bloodstream. While SSRIs only block the reuptake of serotonin, SNRIs can also be used for pain relief and are more effective for different types of depression

18) What do tricycle antidepressants bind to? What is the result?

19) What does monoamine oxidase do?  breaks down norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine

20) What happens when you inhibit MAO? norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine are not broken down, increasing the concentration of all three neurotransmitters in the brain

21) What must you warn patients about? Possible side effects

22) How does lithium work? help strengthen nerve cell connections in brain regions that are involved in regulating mood, thinking and behavior

23) Describe the mechanism of action and indication and how they are related for the following drugs:

a. Cymbalta

b. Effexor

c. Nardil

d. bupropion (Wellbutrin)

e. imipramine (Trofranil)

f. sertraline (Zoloft)

g. Lexapro (escitalopram)

h. Paxil

i. Buspirone (BuSpar)

24) What do CNS depressants do?  act on the brain by increasing activity of GABA, a chemical that slows brain activity

25) What are the 4 classes of CNS depressants? Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines, stimulants

26) How does methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin) work? How does this relate to the role of dopamine? increasing the availability of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine in your CNS connections

27) What receptor do barbiturates bind to? What do they do?

28) What receptor do benzodiazepines bind to? What do they do?

29) What is lorazepam and how does it work?

30) What are barbiturates used to treat?

31) What are benzodiazepines used to treat?

32) How does Xanax work? How does this relate to the role of GABA in the brain?

33) What is Nembutal and how does it work?

34) What is zolpidem (Ambien) and how does it work?

35) What are the classes of antidepressants? (table 16.1)

36) How do the side effects of SNRIs relate to the roles of the neurotransmitters affected?

37) How do the side effects of MAOIs relate to the roles of the neurotransmitters affected?

38) What are the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia?

39) What receptor does schizophrenia seem to be associated with? How does this relate to the role of this neurotransmitter in the brain?

40) What are the conventional antipsychotic drugs and how do they work?

41) What are the Atypical antipsychotic drugs and how do they work?

42) Describe extrapyramidal side effects

43) What is haloperidol and how does it work?

Seizures

Known Causes:

Special considerations for Pregnancy:

Definition of Epilepsy:

Antiseizure pharmacotherapy

Goal:

Three mechanisms:

Barbiturates

Mechanism of action (molecular):

Indication:

Common side effects and relation to mechanism of action:

Prototype drug:

GABA potentiating agents

Mechanism of action (molecular):

Indication:

Common side effects and relation to mechanism of action:

Prototype drug: topiramate (Topamax)

Benzodiazepines

Mechanism of action (molecular):

Indication:

Common side effects and relation to mechanism of action:

Prototype drug:

Hydantoins

Mechanism of action (molecular):

Indication:

Common side effects and relation to mechanism of action:

Prototype drug”

Phenytoin-like Drugs

Mechanism of action (molecular):

Indication:

Common side effects and relation to mechanism of action:

Prototype drug:

What is the process for withdrawl of Antiseizure Medicaitons?

Neuromuscular Disorders

Ions involved in functioning of muscles are:

Define:

Pharmacological Treatment of muscle spasm

Therapeutic goals are:

Centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxants

Mechanism of action (molecular):

Indication:

Common side effects and relation to mechanism of action:

Prototype drug:

Direct-Acting Antispasmodics

Mechanism of action (molecular):

Indication:

Prototype drug:

Nondepolarizing blockers

Mechanism of action (molecular):

Indication:

Common side effects and relation to mechanism of action:

Prototype drug:

Depolarizing Blockers

Mechanism of action (molecular):

Primary Use:

Prototype drug: Succinylcholine

Degenerative Disease of the Nervous System

Parkinson’s Disease

Symptoms:

Causes of Symptoms:

Neurotransmitters involved:

Drug Therapy for Parkinsonism

Goals of Pharmacotherapy:

Dopaminergic agents:

Mechanism of action (molecular)

Levodopa –

Carbidopa-

Tolcapone

Ropinirole

Amantadine

Common side effects and relation to mechanism of action

Anticholinergic agents

Mechanism of action (molecular)

Common side effects and relation to mechanism of action

Prototype Drug:

COMT Inhibitors

Mechanism of action (molecular)

Common side effects and relation to mechanism of action

Alzheimer’s Disease

Symptoms:

Possible causes of symptoms:

Structural Damage in the Brain:

Goals of Pharmacotherapy:

Available Agents

AchEI

Donepezil

Mechanism of action (molecular):

Common side effects and relation to mechanism of action:

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