Business
Tubby Toys estimates that its new line of rubber ducks will generate sales of $7.60 million, operating costs of $4.60 million, and a depreciation expense of $1.60 million. Assume the tax rate is 35%. 
a.  Calculate the operating cash flow for the year by using all three methods: (a) adjusted accounting profits; (b) cash inflow/cash outflow analysis; and (c) the depreciation tax shield approach. (Enter your answers in millions rounded to 2 decimal places.) 
Method  Cash Flow 
Adjusted accounting profits  $ million 
Cash inflow/cash outflow analysis  million 
Depreciation tax shield approach  million 
b.  Are the above answers equal?  


The owner of a bicycle repair shop forecasts revenues of $228,000 a year. Variable costs will be $67,000, and rental costs for the shop are $47,000 a year. Depreciation on the repair tools will be $27,000. Prepare an income statement for the shop based on these estimates. The tax rate is 30%. (Input all amounts as positive values.) 
INCOME STATEMENT  
$  
Rental costs  
$  
Laurel’s Lawn Care, Ltd., has a new mower line that can generate revenues of $156,000 per year. Direct production costs are $52,000, and the fixed costs of maintaining the lawn mower factory are $21,000 a year. The factory originally cost $1.3 million and is being depreciated for tax purposes over 25 years using straightline depreciation. Calculate the operating cash flows of the project if the firm’s tax bracket is 30%.(Enter your answer in dollars not in millions.) 
Operating cash flows  $ 
Gluon Inc. is considering the purchase of a new high pressure glueball. It can purchase the glueball for $50,000 and sell its old lowpressure glueball, which is fully depreciated, for $8,000. The new equipment has a 10year useful life and will save $12,000 a year in expenses. The opportunity cost of capital is 10%, and the firm’s tax rate is 40%. What is the equivalent annual savings from the purchase if Gluon uses straightline depreciation? Assume the new machine will have no salvage value. (Do not round intermediate calculations. Round your answer to 2 decimal places.) 
Equivalent annual savings  $ 
Johnny’s Lunches is considering purchasing a new, energyefficient grill. The grill will cost $49,000 and will be depreciated according to the 3year MACRS schedule. It will be sold for scrap metal after 3 years for $12,250. The grill will have no effect on revenues but will save Johnny’s $24,500 in energy expenses per year. The tax rate is 30%. Use the MACRS depreciation schedule. 
a.  What are the operating cash flows in each year? (Do not round intermediate calculations. Round your answers to 2 decimal places.) 
Year  Operating Cash Flows 
1  $ 
2  
3  
b.  What are the total cash flows in each year? (Negative amounts should be indicated by a minus sign. Do not round intermediate calculations. Round your answers to 2 decimal places.) 
Time  Total Cash Flows 
0  $ 
1  
2  
3  
c.  If the discount rate is 12%, should the grill be purchased?  

Revenues generated by a new fad product are forecast as follows: 
Year  Revenues 
1  $46,000 
2  30,000 
3  20,000 
4  10,000 
Thereafter  0 
Expenses are expected to be 50% of revenues, and working capital required in each year is expected to be 30% of revenues in the following year. The product requires an immediate investment of $51,000 in plant and equipment. 
a.  What is the initial investment in the product? Remember working capital. 
Initial investment  $ 
b.  If the plant and equipment are depreciated over 4 years to a salvage value of zero using straightline depreciation, and the firm’s tax rate is 40%, what are the project cash flows in each year? Assume the plant and equipment are worthless at the end of 4 years. (Do not round intermediate calculations.) 
Year  Cash Flow 
1  $ 
2  
3  
4  
c.  If the opportunity cost of capital is 15%, what is the project’s NPV? (A negative value should be indicated by a minus sign. Do not round intermediate calculations. Round your answer to 2 decimal places.) 
NPV  $ 
d.  What is project IRR? (Do not round intermediate calculations. Enter your answer as a percent rounded to 2 decimal places.) 
IRR  % 
Kinky Copies may buy a highvolume copier. The machine costs $130,000 and will be depreciated straightline over 5 years to a salvage value of $22,000. Kinky anticipates that the machine actually can be sold in 5 years for $30,000. The machine will save $22,000 a year in labor costs but will require an increase in working capital, mainly paper supplies, of $11,000. The firm’s marginal tax rate is 35%, and the discount rate is 6%. (Assume the net working capital will be recovered at the end of Year 5.) 
Calculate the NPV. (Negative amount should be indicated by a minus sign. Do not round intermediate calculations. Round your answer to 2 decimal places.) 
NPV  $ 
Should Kinky buy the machine?  

Quick Computing installed its previous generation of computer chip manufacturing equipment 3 years ago. Some of that older equipment will become unnecessary when the company goes into production of its new product. The obsolete equipment, which originally cost $35.5 million, has been depreciated straightline over an assumed tax life of 5 years, but it can be sold now for $17.1 million. The firm’s tax rate is 40%. What is the aftertax cash flow from the sale of the equipment? (Enter your answer in millions rounded to 2 decimal places.) 
Aftertax cash flow  $ million 
Bottoms Up Diaper Service is considering the purchase of a new industrial washer. It can purchase the washer for $1,800 and sell its old washer for $500. The new washer will last for 6 years and save $500 a year in expenses. The opportunity cost of capital is 18%, and the firm’s tax rate is 40%. 
a.  If the firm uses straightline depreciation to an assumed salvage value of zero over a 6year life, what is the annual operating cash flow of the project in years 1 to 6? The new washer will in fact have zero salvage value after 6 years, and the old washer is fully depreciated. 
Annual operating cash flow  $ 
b.  What is project NPV? (Negative amount should be indicated by a minus sign. Do not round intermediate calculations. Round your answer to 2 decimal places.) 
NPV  $ 
c.  What is NPV if the firm uses MACRS depreciation with a 5year tax life? Use the MACRS depreciation schedule. (Do not round intermediate calculations. Round your answer to 2 decimal places.) 
NPV  $ 
Canyon Tours showed the following components of working capital last year: 
Beginning  End of Year  
Accounts receivable  $25,400  $23,700 
Inventory  12,700  13,900 
Accounts payable  15,200  17,900 
a.  What was the change in net working capital during the year? (A negative amount should be indicated by a minus sign.) 
Change in net working capital  $ 
b.  If sales were $36,700 and costs were $24,700, what was cash flow for the year? Ignore taxes. 
Cash flow  $ 
A house painting business had revenues of $16,600 and expenses of $9,600 last summer. There were no depreciation expenses. However, the business reported the following changes in working capital: 
Beginning  End  
Accounts receivable  $1,800  $5,100 
Accounts payable  820  360 
Calculate net cash flow for the business for this period. 
Net cash flow  $ 
Better Mousetraps has developed a new trap. It can go into production for an initial investment in equipment of $5.4 million. The equipment will be depreciated straight line over 6 years to a value of zero, but in fact it can be sold after 6 years for $606,000. The firm believes that working capital at each date must be maintained at a level of 10% of next year’s forecast sales. The firm estimates production costs equal to $1.70 per trap and believes that the traps can be sold for $7 each. Sales forecasts are given in the following table. The project will come to an end in 6 years., when the trap becomes technologically obsolete. The firm’s tax bracket is 35%, and the required rate of return on the project is 12%. Use theMACRS depreciation schedule. 
Year:  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  Thereafter 
Sales (millions of traps)  0  .5  .7  .9  .9  .6  .3  0 
a.  What is project NPV? (Do not round intermediate calculations. Enter your answer in millions rounded to 4 decimal places.) 
NPV  $ million 
b.  By how much would NPV increase if the firm depreciated its investment using the 5year MACRS schedule? (Do not round intermediate calculations. Enter your answer in whole dollars not in millions.) 
The NPV increases by $ . 
The efficiency gains resulting from a justintime inventory management system will allow a firm to reduce its level of inventories permanently by $570,000. What is the most the firm should be willing to pay for installing the system? 
Firm should willing to pay  $ 
Better Mousetraps has developed a new trap. It can go into production for an initial investment in equipment of $5.7 million. The equipment will be depreciated straight line over 6 years to a value of zero, but in fact it can be sold after 6 years for $671,000. The firm believes that working capital at each date must be maintained at a level of 10% of next year’s forecast sales. The firm estimates production costs equal to $1.80 per trap and believes that the traps can be sold for $8 each. Sales forecasts are given in the following table. The project will come to an end in 6 years., when the trap becomes technologically obsolete. The firm’s tax bracket is 35%, and the required rate of return on the project is 11%. Use theMACRS depreciation schedule. 
Year:  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  Thereafter 
Sales (millions of traps)  0  .4  .5  .7  .7  .5  .3  0 
Suppose the firm can cut its requirements for working capital in half by using better inventory control systems. By how much will this increase project NPV? (Enter your answer in millions rounded to 4 decimal places.) 