Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2019 by McGraw- Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2016, 2014, and 2012. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

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ISBN 978-1-259-81395-5 (bound edition) MHID 1-259-81395-9 (bound edition)

ISBN 978-1-259-89997-3 (loose-leaf edition) MHID 1-259-89997-7 (loose-leaf edition)

ISBN 978-1-259-89994-2 (instructor’s edition) MHID 1-259-89994-2 (instructor’s edition)

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All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Dess, Gregory G., author. | McNamara, Gerry, author. | Eisner, Alan B., author. Title: Strategic management : text and cases / Gregory G. Dess, University of Texas at Dallas, Gerry McNamara, Michigan State University, Alan B. Eisner, Pace University. Description: Ninth edition. | New York, NY : McGraw-Hill Education, [2019] Identifiers: LCCN 2017052281 | ISBN 9781259813955 (alk. paper) Subjects: LCSH: Strategic planning. Classification: LCC HD30.28 .D4746 2019 | DDC 658.4/012—dc23 LC record available at

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To my family, Margie and Taylor and my parents, the late Bill and Mary Dess; and Michael Wood

To my first two academic mentors—Charles Burden and Les Rue (of Georgia State University)


To my wonderful wife, Gaelen, my children, Megan and AJ; and my parents, Gene and Jane


To my family, Helaine, Rachel, and Jacob


To my family, Hannah, Paul and Stephen; and my parents, Kenny and Inkyung.




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Gregory G. Dess is the Andrew R. Cecil Endowed Chair in Management at the University of Texas at Dallas. His primary research interests are in strategic management, organization- environment relationships, and knowledge management. He has published numerous articles on these subjects in both academic and practitioner-oriented journals. He also serves on the editorial boards of a wide range of practitioner-oriented and academic journals. In August 2000, he was inducted into the Academy of Management Journal’s Hall of Fame as one of its charter members. Professor Dess has conducted executive programs in the United States, Europe, Africa, Hong Kong, and Australia. During 1994 he was a Fulbright Scholar in Oporto, Portugal. In 2009, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Bern (Switzerland). He received his PhD in Business Administration from the University of Washington (Seattle) and a BIE degree from Georgia Tech.

Gerry McNamara is the Eli Broad Professor of Management at Michigan State University. His research draws on cognitive and behavioral theories to explain strategic phenomena, including strategic decision making, mergers and acquisitions, and environmental assessments. His research has been published in the Academy of Management Journal, the Strategic Management Journal, Organization Science, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, the Journal of Applied Psychology, the Journal of Management, and the Journal of International Business Studies. Gerry’s research has also been abstracted in the Wall Street Journal, Harvard Business Review, New York Times, Bloomberg Businessweek, the Economist, and Financial Week. He serves as an Associate Editor for the Strategic Management Journal and previously served as an Associate Editor for the Academy of Management Journal. He received his PhD from the University of Minnesota.


about the authors

©He GaoPhoto provided by the author

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Alan B. Eisner is Professor of Management and Department Chair, Management and Management Science Department, at the Lubin School of Business, Pace University. He received his PhD in management from the Stern School of Business, New York University. His primary research interests are in strategic management, technology management, organizational learning, and managerial decision making. He has published research articles and cases in journals such as Advances in Strategic Management, International Journal of Electronic Commerce, International Journal of Technology Management, American Business Review, Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, and Journal of the International Academy for Case Studies. He is the former Associate Editor of the Case Association’s peer-reviewed journal, The CASE Journal.

Seung-Hyun Lee is a Professor of strategic management and international business and the Area Coordinator of the Organization, Strategy, and International Management area at the Jindal School of Business, University of Texas at Dallas. His primary research interests lie on the intersection between strategic management and international business spanning from foreign direct investment to issues of microfinance and corruption. He has published in numerous journals including Academy of Management Review, Journal of Business Ethics, Journal of International Business Studies, Journal of Business Venturing, and Strategic Management Journal. He received his MBA and PhD from the Ohio State University.

©Seung-Hyun Lee©Alan B. Eisner

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Welcome to the Ninth Edition of Strategic Management: Text and Cases! As noted on the cover, we are happy to introduce Seung- Hyun Lee to the author team. Greg has known Seung since we both joined the faculty at the University of Texas at Dallas in 2002. Seung has developed a very distinguished publication record in both strategic management and international business/international management and he has made many important contributions in these areas in the present edition. In particular, his international expertise has been particularly valuable in further “globalizing” our book.

We appreciate the constructive and positive feedback that we have received on our work. Here’s some of the encouraging feedback we have received from our reviewers:

The Dess book comprehensively covers the fundamentals of strategy and supports concepts with research and managerial insights.

Joshua J. Daspit, Mississippi State University

Very engaging. Students will want to read it and find it hard to put down.

Amy Grescock, University of Michigan, Flint

Very easy for students to understand. Great use of business examples throughout the text.

Debbie Gilliard, Metropolitan State University, Denver

I use Strategic Management in a capstone course required of all business majors, and students appreciate the book because it synergizes all their business education into a meaningful and understandable whole. My students enjoy the book’s readability and tight organization, as well as the contemporary examples, case studies, discussion questions, and exercises.

William Sannwald, San Diego State University

The Dess book overcomes many of the limitations of the last book I used in many ways: (a) presents content in a very interesting and engrossing manner without compromising the depth and comprehensiveness, (b) inclusion of timely and interesting illustrative examples, and (c) EOC exercises do an excellent job of complementing the chapter content.

Sucheta Nadkami, University of Cambridge

The content is current and my students would find the real-world examples to be extremely interesting. My colleagues would want to know about it and I would make extensive use of the following features: “Learning from Mistakes,” “Strategy Spotlights,” and “Issues for Debate.” I especially like the “Reflecting on Career Implications” feature. Bottom line: the authors do a great job of explaining complex material and at the same time their use of up-to-date examples promotes learning.

Jeffrey Richard Nystrom, University of Colorado at Denver

We always strive to improve our work and we are most appreciative of the extensive and thoughtful feedback that many strategy professionals have graciously given us. We endeavored to incorporate their ideas into the Ninth Edition—and we acknowledge them by name later in the Preface.

We believe we have made valuable improvements throughout our many revised editions of Strategic Management. At the same time, we strive to be consistent and “true” to our original overriding objective: a book that satisfies three R’s—rigor, relevance, and readable. And we are


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pleased that we have received feedback (such as the comments on the previous page) that is consistent with what we are trying to accomplish.

What are some of the features in Strategic Management that reinforce the 3 R’s? First, we build in rigor by drawing on the latest research by management scholars and insights from management consultants to offer a current a current and comprehensive view of strategic issues. We reinforce this rigor with our “Issues for Debate” and “Reflecting on Career Implications. . .” that require students to develop insights on how to address complex issues and understand how strategy concepts can enhance their career success. Second, to enhance relevance, we provide numerous examples from management practice in the text and “Strategy Spotlights” (sidebars). We also increase relevance by relating course topic and examples to current business and societal themes, including environmental sustainability, ethics, globalization, entrepreneurship, and data analytics. Third, we stress readability with an engaging writing style with minimal jargon to ensure an effective learning experience. This is most clearly evident in the conversational presentations of chapter opening “Learning from Mistakes” and chapter ending “Issues for Debate.”

Unlike other strategy texts, we provide three separate chapters that address timely topics about which business students should have a solid understanding. These are the role of intellectual assets in value creation (Chapter 4), entrepreneurial strategy and competitive dynamics (Chapter 8), and fostering entrepreneurship in established organizations (Chapter 12). We also provide an excellent and thorough chapter on how to analyze strategic management cases.

In developing Strategic Management: Text and Cases, we certainly didn’t forget the instructors. As we all know, you have a most challenging (but rewarding) job. We did our best to help you. We provide a variety of supplementary materials that should help you in class preparation and delivery. For example, our chapter notes do not simply summarize the material in the text. Rather (and consistent with the concept of strategy), we ask ourselves: “How can we add value?” Thus, for each chapter, we provide numerous questions to pose to help guide class discussion, at least 12 boxed examples to supplement chapter material, and three detailed “teaching tips” to further engage students. For example, we provide several useful insights on strategic leadership from one of Greg’s colleagues, Charles Hazzard (formerly Executive Vice President, Occidental Chemical). Also, we completed the chapter notes—along with the entire test bank—ourselves. That is, unlike many of our rivals, we didn’t simply farm the work out to others. Instead, we felt that such efforts help to enhance quality and consistency—as well as demonstrate our personal commitment to provide a top-quality total package to strategy instructors. With the Ninth Edition, we also benefited from valued input by our strategy colleagues to further improve our work.

Let’s now address some of the key substantive changes in the Ninth Edition. Then we will cover some of the major features that we have had in previous editions.

WHAT’S NEW? HIGHLIGHTS OF THE NINTH EDITION We have endeavored to add new material to the chapters that reflects the feedback we have received from our reviewers as well as the challenges today’s managers face. Thus, we all invested an extensive amount of time carefully reviewing a wide variety of books, academic and practitioner journals, and the business press.

We also worked hard to develop more concise and tightly written chapters. Based on feedback from some of the reviewers, we have tightened our writing style, tried to eliminate redundant examples, and focused more directly on what we feel is the most important content in each chapter for our audience. The overall result is that we were able to update our material, add valuable new content, and—at the same time—shorten the length of the chapters.

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