Consider the Audience
• Analyzing the audience is central to the speechmaking process; consider your audience at every step of the way in preparing and presenting your speech. • Gather information about your audience by asking questions or surveying them more formally. • Summarize and analyze the information you have gathered.
Select and Narrow Your Topic
• Consider the audience: Who are your listeners and what do they expect? • Consider the occasion: What is the reason for the speech? • Consider your own interests and skills: What are your strengths?
Determine Your Purpose
• Decide whether your general speech purpose is to inform, to persuade, or
to entertain, or a combination of these goals. • Decide on your specific purpose:
What do you want your listeners to be able to do after you finish your speech? • Use your specific purpose to guide
you in connecting your message to your audience.
Develop Your Central Idea
• State your central idea for your speech in one sentence. • Your central idea should be a single idea
presented in clear, specific language. • Relate your central idea to your audience.
Generate Main Ideas
• Determine whether your central idea can be supported with logical divisions using a topical arrangement. • Determine whether your central idea can be supported with reasons the idea is true. • Determine whether your central idea can be supported with a series of steps.
Gather Supporting Material
• Remember that most of what you say consists of supporting material such
as stories, descriptions, definitions, analogies, statistics, and opinions.
• The best supporting material both clarifies your major ideas and holds your listeners’ attention. • Supporting material that is personal, concrete, and appealing to the listeners’
senses is often the most interesting.
Organize Your Speech
• Remember the maxim: Tell us what you’re going to tell us (introduction); tell us (body); and tell us what you told us (conclusion). • Outline your main ideas by topic, chronologically, spatially, by cause and effect, or by problem and solution. • Use signposts to clarify the overall structure of your message.
Rehearse Your Speech
• Prepare speaking notes and practice using them well in advance of your speaking date. • Rehearse your speech out loud, standing as you would stand while delivering your speech. • Practice with well-chosen visual aids that are big, simple, and appropriate for your audience.
Deliver Your Speech
• Look at individual listeners. • Use movement and gestures that fit your natural style of speaking.
Why Do You Need This New Edition? If you’re wondering why you should buy this new edition of Public Speaking: An Audience- Centered Approach, here are eight good reasons!
1. We’ve kept the best and improved the rest. The eighth edition of Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach continues its unique focus on the importance of analyzing and considering the audience at every point in the speech- making process, but is now an easier-to-use and more effec- tive learning tool than ever.
2. We’ve streamlined the book to 16 chapters, so that every chapter can be covered during a standard semester. Chapter 1 now combines an introduction to public speaking with an overview of the audience-centered model. Chapter 6 now combines information on gathering supporting mate- rial with advice on how to integrate supporting material into a speech.
3. New end-of-chapter Study Guides are designed to help you retain and apply chapter concepts. Study Guides feature chapter summaries; “Using What You’ve Learned” questions posing realistic scenarios; “A Question of Ethics” to reinforce the importance of ethical speaking; and referrals to selected online resources that help you find resources to use in your own speeches.
4. More tables and Recap boxes summarize the content of nearly every major section in each chapter. These frequent reviews help you check understanding, study for exams, and rehearse material to aid retention.
5. The eighth edition continues our popular focus on control- ling speaking anxiety, developed through expanded and updated coverage of communication apprehension in Chapter 1 and reinforced with tips and reminders in “Confidently Connecting with Your Audience” features in the margins of every chapter.
6. New and expanded coverage of key communication theories and current research, including studies of anxiety styles in Chapter 1, introductions to social judgment theory in Chapter 14, and emotional response theory in Chapter 15, help you apply recent theories and findings.
7. Every chapter of the eighth edition boasts engaging fresh examples to help you connect concepts to your own life and interests, including new references to contemporary technology such as social media sites in Chapter 4 and iPads in Chapter 12.
8. New speeches, including Barack Obama’s inaugural speech, contribute to an impressive sample speech appendix that will inspire and instruct you as you work with your own material.
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8 Public SpeakingAN AUDIENCE-CENTERED APPROACH Steven A. Beebe Texas State University—San Marcos
Susan J. Beebe Texas State University—San Marcos
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Beebe, Steven A.
Public speaking : an audience-centered approach / Steven A. Beebe, Susan J. Beebe. — 8th ed. p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-205-78462-2 (alk. paper)
1. Public speaking. 2. Oral communication. I. Beebe, Susan J. II. Title. PN4129.15.B43 2012 808.5’1—dc22
Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States. To obtain permission to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, 501 Boylston Street, Suite 900, Boston, MA 02116, fax: (617) 671-2290. For information regarding permissions, call (617) 671-2295 or e-mail: email@example.com.
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ISBN-13: 978-0-205-78462-2 www.pearsonhighered.com ISBN-10: 0-205-78462-3
Dedicated to our parents, Russell and Muriel Beebe and Herb and Jane Dye
And to our children, Mark, Matthew, and Brittany Beebe
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1 Speaking with Confidence 3 2 Speaking Freely and Ethically 35 3 Listening to Speeches 49 4 Analyzing Your Audience 77 5 Developing Your Speech 111 6 Gathering and Using Supporting Material 133 7 Organizing Your Speech 161 8 Introducing and Concluding Your Speech 183 9 Outlining and Revising Your Speech 203
10 Using Words Well: Speaker Language and Style 217 11 Delivering Your Speech 235 12 Using Presentation Aids 265 13 Speaking to Inform 289 14 Understanding Principles of Persuasive Speaking 315 15 Using Persuasive Strategies 337 16 Speaking for Special Occasions and Purposes 373
Appendix A Speaking in Small Groups 392
Appendix B Speeches for Analysis and Discussion 400
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Speaking with Confidence 3 Why Study Public Speaking? 4
Empowerment 4 ● Employment 4
The Communication Process 5 Communication as Action 5 ● Communication as Interaction 6 ● Communication as Transaction 7
The Rich Heritage of Public Speaking 7 LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Martin Luther King Jr. 8
Improving Your Confidence as a Speaker 9
SAMPLE OUTLINE 24
Gather Visual Supporting Material 25
Organize Your Speech 25
Select and Narrow Your Topic 20 Determine Your Purpose 21
Determine Your General Purpose 21 ● Determine Your Specific Purpose 21
Develop Your Central Idea 22 Generate the Main Ideas 22 Gather Supporting Material 23
Gather Interesting Supporting Material 23
Understand Your Nervousness 10 ● How to Build Your Confidence 13
CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Begin with the End in Mind 17
An Overview of Audience-Centered Public Speaking 17 Consider Your Audience 19
Gather and Analyze Information about Your Audience 19 ● Consider the Culturally Diverse Backgrounds of Your Audience 19
Rehearse Your Speech 27
Deliver Your Speech 27
SAMPLE SPEECH 29
STUDY GUIDE 30
SPEECH WORKSHOP Improving Your Confidence as a Public Speaker 33
Speaking Freely and Ethically 35 Speaking Freely 37
Free Speech and the U.S. Constitution 37 ● Free Speech in the Twentieth Century 37 ● Free Speech in the Twenty-first Century 38
Speaking Ethically 39 Have a Clear, Responsible Goal 39
LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Mohandas Gandhi 40
Use Sound Evidence and Reasoning 40 ● Be Sensitive to and Tolerant of Differences 41 ● Be Honest 41 ● Don’t Plagiarize 42
CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Remember That You Will Look More Confident Than You May Feel 42
SAMPLE ORAL CITATION 44
Speaking Credibly 44
STUDY GUIDE 46
SPEECH WORKSHOP Avoiding Plagiarism 47
Listening to Speeches 49 Overcoming Barriers to Effective Listening 51
Managing Information Overload 52 ● Overcoming Personal Concerns 53 ● Reducing Outside Distractions 53 ● Overcoming Prejudice 54 ● Using Differences between Speech Rate and Thought Rate 54 ● Managing Receiver Apprehension 55
How to Become a Better Listener 55 Listen with Your Eyes as Well as Your Ears 56 ● Listen Mindfully 57
LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS César Chávez 58
Listen Skillfully 59 ● Listen Ethically 62
Improving Listening and Critical Thinking Skills 63 Separate Facts from Inferences 63 ● Evaluate the Quality of Evidence 64 ● Evaluate the Underlying Logic and Reasoning 65
Analyzing and Evaluating Speeches 65 Understanding Criteria for Evaluating Speeches 66 ● Identifying and Analyzing Rhetorical Strategies 68 ● Giving Feedback to Others 69 ● Giving Feedback to Yourself 70
CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Look for Positive Listener Support 71
STUDY GUIDE 72
SPEECH WORKSHOP Evaluating a Speaker’s Rhetorical Effectiveness 74
Analyzing Your Audience 77 Gathering Information about Your Audience 79 Analyzing Information about Your Audience 80
Look for Audience Member Similarities 81 ● Look for Audience Member Differences 82 ● Establish Common Ground with Your Audience 82
Adapting to Your Audience 82
LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Winston Churchill 83
CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Learn as Much as You Can about Your Audience 83
Analyzing Your Audience before You Speak 84 Demographic Audience Analysis 84 ● Psychological Audience Analysis 94 ● Situational Audience Analysis 96
Adapting to Your Audience as You Speak 99
DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Consider Your Audience 99
Identifying Nonverbal Audience Cues 100 ● Responding to Nonverbal Cues 101 ● Strategies for Customizing Your Message to Your Audience 101
Analyzing Your Audience after You Speak 103 Nonverbal Responses 104 ● Verbal Responses 104 ● Survey Responses 104 ● Behavioral Responses 105
STUDY GUIDE 106
SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing Communication Strategies to Adapt to Your Audience 108
Developing Your Speech 111 Select and Narrow Your Topic 112
Guidelines for Selecting a Topic 113
CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Select an Interesting Topic 113
LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Frederick Douglass 115
Strategies for Selecting a Topic 115 ● Narrowing the Topic 117
DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Select and Narrow Your Topic 117
Determine Your Purpose 118 General Purpose 118 ● Specific Purpose 119
DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Determine Your Purpose 121
Develop Your Central Idea 121 A Complete Declarative Sentence 122 ● Direct, Specific Language 122
DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Develop Your Central Idea 123 ● A Single Idea 123 ● An Audience-Centered Idea 123
Generate and Preview Your Main Ideas 124 Generating Your Main Ideas 124 ● Previewing Your Main Ideas 125
Meanwhile, Back at the Computer . . . 126
DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Generate Your Main Ideas 127
STUDY GUIDE 128
SPEECH WORKSHOP Strategies for Selecting a Speech Topic 130
Gathering and Using Supporting Material 133 Sources of Supporting Material 134
Personal Knowledge and Experience 134 ● The Internet 134 ● Online Databases 135 ● Traditional Library Holdings 137 ● Interviews 139
Research Strategies 141 Develop a Preliminary Bibliography 141 ● Locate Resources 142 ● Assess the Usefulness of Resources 142 ● Take Notes 143
DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Gather Supporting Material 143
Identify Possible Presentation Aids 144
Types of Supporting Material 144 Illustrations 145
LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Eleanor Roosevelt 146
Descriptions and Explanations 147 ● Definitions 148 ● Analogies 149 ● Statistics 150 ● Opinions 152
CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Prepare Early 153
The Best Supporting Material 154
STUDY GUIDE 156
SPEECH WORKSHOP Identifying a Variety of Supporting Material for Your Speech 158
Organizing Your Speech 161 Organizing Your Main Ideas 163
CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Organize Your Message 163
Organizing Ideas Topically 163 ● Ordering Ideas Chronologically 164 ● Arranging Ideas Spatially 166 ● Organizing Ideas to Show Cause and Effect 166
LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Desmond Tutu 166
Organizing Ideas by Problem-Solution 167 ● Acknowledging Cultural Differences in Organization 169
Subdividing Your Main Ideas 170 Integrating Your Supporting Material 170
Prepare Your Supporting Material 170 ● Organize Your Supporting Material 171
DEVELOPING YOUR SPEECH STEP BY STEP Organize Your Speech 172
Incorporate Your Supporting Material into Your Speech 173
Developing Signposts 173
SAMPLE INTEGRATION OF SUPPORTING MATERIAL 173
Transitions 174 ● Previews 175 ● Summaries 176
Supplementing Signposts with Presentation Aids 177
STUDY GUIDE 178
SPEECH WORKSHOP Organizing Your Ideas 180
Introducing and Concluding Your Speech 183 CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Be Familiar with Your
Introduction and Conclusion 184
Purposes of Introductions 184 Get the Audience’s Attention 184 ● Give the Audience a Reason to Listen 185 ● Introduce the Subject 185 ● Establish Your Credibility 186 ● Preview Your Main Ideas 186
Effective Introductions 187 Illustrations or Anecdotes 187 ● Startling Facts or Statistics 188 ● Quotations 188 ● Humor 189 ● Questions 190 ● References to Historical Events 191 ● References to Recent Events 192 ● Personal References 192 ● References to the Occasion 192 ● References to Preceding Speeches 193
Purposes of Conclusions 193 Summarize the Speech 193 ● Provide Closure 194
Effective Conclusions 195 Methods Also Used for Introductions 196 ● References to the Introduction 196 ● Inspirational Appeals or Challenges 196
LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Patrick Henry 197
STUDY GUIDE 198
SPEECH WORKSHOP Developing the Introduction and Conclusion to Your Speech 200
Outlining and Revising Your Speech 203 Developing Your Preparation Outline 204
The Preparation Outline 204 ● Sample Preparation Outline 206
Revising Your Speech 207
SAMPLE PREPARATION OUTLINE 208
Developing Your Delivery Outline and Speaking Notes 209 The Delivery Outline 210
SAMPLE DELIVERY OUTLINE 210
Sample Delivery Outline 211 ● Speaking Notes 212
CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Use Your Well-Prepared Speaking Notes When You Rehearse 212
LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS Mark Twain 213
STUDY GUIDE 214
SPEECH WORKSHOP Outlining Your Speech 215
Using Words Well: Speaker Language and Style 217 Differentiating Oral and Written Language Styles 218 Using Words Effectively 219
Use Specific, Concrete Words 219 ● Use Simple Words 220 ● Use Words Correctly 220 ● Use Words Concisely 221
Adapting Your Language Style to Diverse Listeners 221 Use Language That Your Audience Can Understand 222 ● Use Appropriate Language 222 ● Use Unbiased Language 222
Crafting Memorable Word Structures 223 Creating Figurative Images 224 ● Creating Drama 225 ● Creating Cadence 225
LEARNING FROM GREAT SPEAKERS John F. Kennedy 228
Analyzing an Example of Memorable Word Structure 228
Using Memorable Word Structures Effectively 229
CONFIDENTLY CONNECTING WITH YOUR AUDIENCE Use Words to Manage Your Anxiety 229