Business

RANDOLPH W. WESTERFIELD Univer s i t y o f Southern Ca l i fo rn ia

BRADFORD D. JORDAN Univer s i t y o f Kentucky

GORDON S. ROBERTS Schul ich School o f Bus iness , Yor k Univer s i t y

Fundamenta l s o f

Corporate Finance

Eighth Canadian Edition

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Fundamentals of Corporate Finance Eighth Canadian Edition

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ISBN-13: 978-0-07-105160-6 ISBN-10: 0-07-105160-0

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Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication

Fundamentals of corporate finance / Stephen A. Ross … [et al.].—8th Canadian ed. Includes bibliographical references and indexes.

ISBN 978-0-07-105160-6

1. Corporations—Finance—Textbooks.  I. Ross, Stephen A

HG4026.F86 2013               658.15               C2012-906997-3

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ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Stephen A. Ross Sloan School of Management, Franco Modigliani Professor of Finance and Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Stephen A. Ross is the Franco Modigliani Professor of Finance and Economics at the Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. One of the most widely published authors in finance and economics, Professor Ross is recognized for his work in developing the Arbitrage Pricing Theory and his substantial contributions to the discipline through his research in signalling, agency theory, option pricing, and the theory of the term structure of interest rates, among other topics. A past president of the American Finance Association, he currently serves as an associate editor of several academic and practitioner journals. He is a trustee of CalTech.

Randolph W. Westerf ield Marshall School of Business, University of Southern California

Randolph W. Westerfield is Dean Emeritus of the University of Southern California’s Marshall School of Business and is the Charles B. Thornton Professor of Finance. He came to USC from the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, where he was the chairman of the finance department and a member of the finance faculty for 20 years. He is a member of several public company boards of directors, including Health Management Associates, Inc., William Lyons Homes, and the Nicholas Applegate growth fund. His areas of expertise include corporate financial policy, investment management, and stock market price behaviour.

Bradford D. Jordan Gatton College of Business and Economics, Professor of Finance and holder of the Richard W. and Janis H. Furst Endowed Chair in Finance, University of Kentucky

Bradford D. Jordan is Professor of Finance and holder of the Richard W. and Janis H. Furst Endowed Chair in Finance at the University of Kentucky. He has a long- standing interest in both applied and theoretical issues in corporate finance and has extensive experience teaching all levels of corporate finance and financial management policy. Professor Jordan has published nu- merous articles on issues such as cost of capital, capital structure, and the behaviour of security prices. He is a past president of the Southern Finance Association, and he is co-author (with Thomas W. Miller, Jr.) of Fundamentals of Investments: Valuation and Management, 4e, a leading investments text, published by McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Gordon S. Roberts Schulich School of Business, York University, Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Professor of Financial Services

Gordon S. Roberts is Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Professor of Financial Services at the Schulich School of Business, York University. His exten- sive teaching experience includes finance classes for un- dergraduate and MBA students, executives, and bankers in Canada and internationally. Professor Roberts con- ducts research on the pricing of bank loans and the reg- ulation of financial institutions. He has served on the editorial boards of several Canadian and international academic journals. Professor Roberts has been a consul- tant to a number of regulatory bodies responsible for the oversight of financial institutions and utilities.

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BRIEF CONTENTS

PREFACE xvii

P A R T 1

OVERVIEW OF CORPORATE FINANCE 1

1 Introduction to Corporate Finance 1 2 Financial Statements, Cash Flow, and Taxes 25

P A R T 2

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND LONG-TERM FINANCIAL PLANNING 53

3 Working with Financial Statements 53 4 Long-Term Financial Planning and

Corporate Growth 84

P A R T 3

VALUATION OF FUTURE CASH FLOWS 111

5 Introduction to Valuation: The Time Value of Money 111

6 Discounted Cash Flow Valuation 129 7 Interest Rates and Bond Valuation 165 8 Stock Valuation 196

P A R T 4

CAPITIAL BUDGETING 220

9 Net Present Value and Other Investment Criteria 220

10 Making Capital Investment Decisions 250 11 Project Analysis and Evaluation 288

P A R T 5

RISK AND RETURN 317

12 Lessons from Capital Market History 317 13 Return, Risk, and the Security Market Line 346

P A R T 6

COST OF CAPITAL AND LONG-TERM FINANCIAL POLICY 387

14 Cost of Capital 387 15 Raising Capital 423 16 Financial Leverage and Capital

Structure Policy 454 17 Dividends and Dividend Policy 490

P A R T 7

SHORT-TERM FINANCIAL PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT 519

18 Short-Term Finance and Planning 519 19 Cash and Liquidity Management 552 20 Credit and Inventory Management 572

P A R T 8

TOPICS IN CORPORATE FINANCE 606

21 International Corporate Finance 606 22 Leasing 634 23 Mergers and Acquisitions 655

P A R T 9

DERIVATIVE SECURITIES AND CORPORATE FINANCE 685

24 Enterprise Risk Management 685 25 Options and Corporate Securities 711 26 Behavioural Finance: Implications for

Financial Management 750

Glossary 773 Appendix A: Mathematical Tables (available on Connect) Appendix B: Answers to Selected End-of-Chapter Problems (available on Connect) Subject Index 781 Name Index 800 Equation Index 802

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CONTENTS

PREFACE xvii

P A R T 1

OVERVIEW OF CORPORATE FINANCE 1

C H A P T E R 1

INTRODUCTION TO CORPORATE FINANCE 1

1.1 Corporate Finance and the Financial Manager 1 What Is Corporate Finance? 2 The Financial Manager 2 Financial Management Decisions 2

1.2 Forms of Business Organization 4 Sole Proprietorship 4 Partnership 5 Corporation 5 Income Trust 6 Co-operative (Co-op) 7

1.3 The Goal of Financial Management 8 Possible Goals 8 The Goal of Financial Management 8 A More General Goal 9

1.4 The Agency Problem and Control of the Corporation 10 Agency Relationships 10 Management Goals 10 Do Managers Act in the Shareholders’ Interests? 10 Corporate Social Responsibility and Ethical Investing 12

1.5 Financial Markets and the Corporation 14 Cash Flows to and from the Firm 15 Money versus Capital Markets 15 Primary versus Secondary Markets 16

1.6 Financial Institutions 18

1.7 Trends in Financial Markets and Financial Management 20

1.8 Outline of the Text 21

1.9 Summary and Conclusions 22

C H A P T E R 2

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, CASH FLOW, AND TAXES 25

2.1 Statement of Financial Position 25 Assets 26 Liabilities and Owners’ Equity 26 Net Working Capital 27 Liquidity 28 Debt versus Equity 28 Value versus Cost 28

2.2 Statement of Comprehensive Income 30 International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) 30 Non-Cash Items 31 Time and Costs 31

2.3 Cash Flow 32 Cash Flow from Assets 32 Cash Flow to Creditors and Shareholders 34 Net Capital Spending 36 Change in NWC and Cash Flow from Assets 36

2.4 Taxes 37 Individual Tax Rates 37 Average versus Marginal Tax Rates 37 Taxes on Investment Income 39 Corporate Taxes 39 Taxable Income 39 Global Tax Rates 40 Capital Gains and Carry-forward and Carry-back 40 Income Trust Income and Taxation 41

2.5 Capital Cost Allowance 42 Asset Purchases and Sales 43

2.6 Summary and Conclusions 45

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P A R T 2

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND LONG-TERM FINANCIAL PLANNING 53

C H A P T E R 3

WORKING WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 53

3.1 Cash Flow and Financial Statements: A Closer Look 54 Sources and Uses of Cash 54 The Statement of Cash Flows 56

3.2 Standardized Financial Statements 57 Common-Size Statements 57 Common-Base-Year Financial Statements: Trend Analysis 59

3.3 Ratio Analysis 60 Short-Term Solvency or Liquidity Measures 61 Other Liquidity Ratios 63 Long-Term Solvency Measures 64 Asset Management, or Turnover, Measures 65 Profitability Measures 67 Market Value Measures 68

3.4 The Du Pont Identity 71

3.5 Using Financial Statement Information 73 Why Evaluate Financial Statements? 73 Choosing a Benchmark 74 Problems with Financial Statement Analysis 75

3.6 Summary and Conclusions 75

C H A P T E R 4

LONG-TERM FINANCIAL PLANNING AND CORPORATE GROWTH 84

4.1 What Is Financial Planning? 85 Growth as a Financial Management Goal 85 Dimensions of Financial Planning 86 What Can Planning Accomplish? 86

4.2 Financial Planning Models: A First Look 88 A Financial Planning Model: The Ingredients 88 A Simple Financial Planning Model 89

4.3 The Percentage of Sales Approach 90 An Illustration of the Percentage of Sales Approach 90

4.4 External Financing and Growth 95 External Financing Needed and Growth 95 Internal Growth Rate 97 Financial Policy and Growth 98 Determinants of Growth 100 A Note on Sustainable Growth Rate Calculations 101

4.5 Some Caveats on Financial Planning Models 103

4.6 Summary and Conclusions 103

Appendix 4 (available on Connect)

P A R T 3

VALUATION OF FUTURE CASH FLOWS 111

C H A P T E R 5

INTRODUCTION TO VALUATION: THE TIME VALUE OF MONEY 111

5.1 Future Value and Compounding 112 Investing for a Single Period 112 Investing for More than One Period 112 A Note on Compound Growth 118

5.2 Present Value and Discounting 118 The Single-Period Case 119 Present Values for Multiple Periods 119

5.3 More on Present and Future Values 121 Present versus Future Value 121 Determining the Discount Rate 122 Finding the Number of Periods 124

5.4 Summary and Conclusions 126

C H A P T E R 6

DISCOUNTED CASH FLOW VALUATION 129

6.1 Future and Present Values of Multiple Cash Flows 129 Future Value with Multiple Cash Flows 129 Present Value with Multiple Cash Flows 131 A Note on Cash Flow Timing 134

6.2 Valuing Level Cash Flows: Annuities and Perpetuities 135 Present Value for Annuity Cash Flows 135

vi Contents

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Future Value for Annuities 140 A Note on Annuities Due 141 Perpetuities 142 Growing Perpetuities 143 Formula for Present Value of Growing Perpetuity 144 Growing Annuity 145 Formula for Present Value of Growing Annuity 145

6.3 Comparing Rates: The Effect of Compounding 145 Effective Annual Rates and Compounding 146 Calculating and Comparing Effective Annual Rates 146 Mortgages 147 EARs and APRs 148 Taking It to the Limit: A Note on Continuous Compounding 149

6.4 Loan Types and Loan Amortization 150 Pure Discount Loans 150 Interest-Only Loans 150 Amortized Loans 151

6.5 Summary and Conclusions 155

Appendix 6A: Proof of Annuity Present Value Formula 164

C H A P T E R 7

INTEREST RATES AND BOND VALUATION 165

7.1 Bonds and Bond Valuation 165 Bond Features and Prices 165 Bond Values and Yields 166 Interest Rate Risk 169 Finding the Yield to Maturity 170

7.2 More on Bond Features 173 Is It Debt or Equity? 173 Long-Term Debt: The Basics 174 The Indenture 174

7.3 Bond Ratings 177

7.4 Some Different Types of Bonds 178 Financial Engineering 178 Stripped Bonds 179 Floating-Rate Bonds 180 Other Types of Bonds 180

7.5 Bond Markets 181 How Bonds Are Bought and Sold 181 Bond Price Reporting 182 A Note on Bond Price Quotes 182 Bond Funds 184

7.6 Inflation and Interest Rates 184 Real versus Nominal Rates 184 The Fisher Effect 185 Inflation and Present Values 186

7.7 Determinants of Bond Yields 186 The Term Structure of Interest Rates 187 Bond Yields and the Yield Curve: Putting It All Together 188 Conclusion 189

7.8 Summary and Conclusions 190

Appendix 7A: On Duration 194

Appendix 7B (available on Connect)

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