Business

Managing Workforce Demographics

Longevity

Birth rates

Socioeconomic conditions

Other changes in the workforce

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We can explore what factors encourage people to make certain choices regarding their employment and how those choices are reflected in their perceptions of the workplace.

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Managing Workforce Diversity

Workforce diversity: organizations are becoming a more heterogeneous mix of people in terms of gender, age, race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation

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As the borders are disappearing we are seeing more and more heterogeneity in the workplace. Managers today need to embrace diversity and find ways to manage it effectively. The changing demographics have shifted management philosophy in a way that recognizes and utilizes differences to create productivity, profitability, and welcoming cultures.

Diversity poses great opportunities and challenging questions for managers and employees in all countries. Managers must recognize differences and find ways to utilize those differences to improve organizational performance.

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Social Media

Use of social media by employees

Using social media to learn about employees

Impact of social media on employee well-being

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Many organizations struggle with employees’ use of social media in the workplace.

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Enhancing Employee Well-Being at Work

The line between work and non-work has blurred and managers are increasingly dealing with conflicts that arise between work and life away from work

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As technology continues to become an integral part of organizational effectiveness, workers will find that their communication styles and needs will change as well. Managers must stay on top of what is needed to motivate workers in this environment.

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Creating a Positive Work Environment

Positive organizational scholarship: how organizations develop human strengths, foster vitality and resilience, and unlock potential

Focus on what’s good about an organization, not what’s bad

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Positive organizational behavior is a growing interest in organizational behavior. It promotes the idea of exploiting employee strengths rather than focusing on employee limitations or weaknesses.

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Improving Ethical Behavior

Managers facing ethical dilemmas or ethical choices are required to identify right and wrong conduct

Companies promoting strong ethical missions:

Encourage employees to behave with integrity

Provide strong leadership that influences employee decisions to behave ethically

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Today’s highly competitive global economy has created a work environment in which employees may feel pressured to make poor decisions. Moreover, there is generally greater tolerance for unethical behavior. This has prompted many companies to try to help employees navigate ethical dilemmas using tools such as seminars and workshops, as well as formal codes of ethics.

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Developing an OB Model

A model is an abstraction of reality – a simplified version of some real-world phenomenon

Three types of variables:

Inputs, processes, and outcomes

Three levels of analysis

Individual, group, and organizational

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We can develop a model of OB that defines the field – its parameters, concepts, and relationships.

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Three Types of Variables

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The three types of variables to consider include inputs, or variables like personality, group structure, and organizational culture. These are the variables that set the stage for what occurs in an organization.

The second type of variable is processes, or the actions that individuals, groups, and leaders engage in as a result of inputs and that lead to certain outcomes. Think of communication, leadership, conflict and negotiation, and power and politics.

Outcomes are the key variables that you want to explain or predict. We’ll be looking at attitudes and stress, task performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and withdrawal behavior. We’ll also explore group cohesion, group functioning, productivity, and survival.

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Three Levels of OB Analysis

Chapters 15 – 17

Chapters 9 – 14

Chapters 2 – 8

Plan of the Book

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In organizational behavior (OB), we utilize the representation of the world as broken down into three levels. The first level of analysis we will look at is the Individual level. At this level we look at individuals’ behavior. Next, recognizing that individuals make up groups, we analyze how group behavior occurs. Finally, organizations are made up of groups of individuals, so we analyze the organization at a systems level.

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Implications for Managers

Don’t rely on generalizations

Use metrics and situational variables rather than “hunches” to explain cause-and-effect relationships

Increase leadership potential by improving interpersonal skills

Improve technical and conceptual skills by staying current with trends like big data

Recognize the role of organizational behavior on employee work quality and productivity

Use organizational behavior to help design and implement change programs, improve customer service, and address the work-life balance conflict

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The OB Model is critical to your understanding of how organizations behave. In the remainder of this book, we will be utilizing that model to look at behavior on an individual, group, and organizational level.

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Copyright

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