Angela was a 24-year-old female felt swollen, weak, and fatigued for several months. She suddenly noticed her urine had a red-brown discoloration and was low in volume. She went to the emergency room of a nearby hospital and the following data were obtained upon examination and testing:


Serum sodium 124 mEq/L
Serum potassium 6 mEq/L
Serum creatinine 2.5 mg/dL
BUN 24.0 mg/dL
pH (arterial) 7.31
Hematocrit 25%


Appearance Red to brown
Specific gravity 1.025
Blood Positive
Glucose Negative
Protein Mild

Renal Function Tests:

GFR (glomerular filtration rate) 40 mL/min
RBF (renal blood flow) 280 mL/min

Q1: A: What was Angela’s disorder?

B: What could cause this disorder?

Q2: Define hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. ?

Q3: What is the cause of the hyponatremia and hyperkalemia?

Q4: Why is there blood in Angela’s urine?

Q5: How do Angela’s renal function tests compare to normal?

Q6: What caused the swollen feeling?

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