Data Tables

Table 3: Effect of Temperature on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate


Post-Lab Questions

1. Write your hypothesis for the “Testing Temperature” portion of the experiment. Be sure to include how and why you think the decreased temperature will affect blood pressure and heart rate.

2. Write you hypothesis for the “Testing Body Position” portion of the experiment. Be sure to include how you think blood pressure and heart rate will vary when you sit versus when you stand.

3. Explain your results in terms of the endocrine system. Indicate how the endocrine system is involved in the physiological responses caused in this experiment. Which hormones are most likely to be involved?

4. Which glands are most likely to be involved with the physiological responses caused in this experiment? Which hormones are most likely to be involved?

5.  How does this experiment demonstrate the “fight or flight” response?

Tissue Growth and Repair

Body Defenses at Tissue Level

  • Physical Barriers
  • Skin
  • Mucous membranes
  • Cilia
  • Stomach acid

Tissue Injury

  • Stimulates inflammatory and immune response
  • Healing process begins

Tissue Injury

  • Specific
  • Attack against invaders (bacteria, toxins, viruses)
  • Nonspecific body response
  • Prevent further injury


Immune Response

Tissue Repair

  • Regeneration
  • Fibrosis

Tissue Repair

  • Repair by dense connective tissue
  • Formation scar tissue
  • Replacement of destroyed tissue
  • Same kind of cells



Regeneration or Fibrosis?

  • Depends on
  • Type of tissue damaged
  • Severity of injury
  • Clean cuts heal faster than ragged tears

After Tissue Injury

  • capillaries become permeable
  • Granulation tissue forms
  • Surface epithelium regenerates

Permeable Capillaries

  • Allows clotting proteins to reach injured area
  • Clot stops blood loss
  • Walls off injured area
  • Prevents bacteria from spreading to other tissues
  • Clot exposed to air forms scab

Granulation Tissue Formation

  • Delicate pink tissue
  • New capillaries
  • Fragile and bleed freely
  • Phagocytes
  • Dispose of clot of fibroblasts

Surface Epithelium Regeneration

  • Across granulation tissue
  • Beneath scab
  • Cover underlying fibrous tissue (scar tissue)
  • Scar invisible or visible

Regeneration Time

  • Epithelial tissues
  • Skin
  • Mucous membranes
  • Fibrous connective tissues
  • Bone
  • Skeletal muscle

Fairly Successful


Replaced by Scar Tissue

  • Cardiac muscle
  • Nervous tissue

Homeostatic Imbalance

  • Scar tissue
  • Strong
  • Lacks flexibility of normal tissues
  • Cannot perform normal function of tissue it replaces
  • Hinders organ function

Tissue Growth

  • Tissues made of cells
  • Cells undergo mitosis
  • Routine division
  • Skin cells
  • Intestinal cells
  • Stop dividing but still have ability
  • Liver cells
  • Lose ability to divide
  • Heart muscle cells
  • Nervous tissue


  • Due to
  • Chemical insults



  • Physical factors


  • Aging “clock”

Built into genes

Aging and Tissue Changes

  • Epithelia
  • Become thinner
  • More easily damaged
  • Skin looses elasticity and sags
  • Exocrine glands less active
  • Endocrine glands less hormones

Aging and Tissue Changes

  • Connective Tissue
  • Bones become porous and weaken
  • Tissue repair slows
  • Muscle Tissue
  • Atrophy
  • Nervous Tissue
  • Atrophy

Other Tissue Changes

  • Neoplasm
  • Uncontrolled cell division
  • Benign or malignant
  • Hyperplasia
  • Increase in cell numbers
  • Enlargement of tissue
  • Due to irritant or stimulant
  • Atrophy
  • Decrease in size
  • Loss normal stimulation

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