Biology

ECS 111 P Spring 2019 Dr. Sealey

ECOSYSTEM CONCEPTS

• UNDERSTANDING HOW ECOSYSTEMS WORK:

• UNDERSTANDING RELATIONSHIPS OF MATTER

AND ENERGY

Ecosystems have to work for the planet to function..

 ECOSYSTEMS = ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS are the result of SPECIFIC ABIOTIC CHARACTERISTICS, and these characteristics also determine the function.

 WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF ECOSYSTEMS?

1.) PRIMARY PRODUCTION – all systems need energy to be produced to be consumer

2.) SECONDARY PRODUCTION – the production of animal biological diversity (insects, reptiles, fish, microbes and mammals)

3.) RECYCLING OF NUTRIENTS AND ENERGY

Terrestrial-to-Aquatic-System Communities

 Shares many of the species and characteristics of both ecosystems

 May also include unique conditions that support distinctive plant and animal species

Diversity is a key feature of ecosystems

Diversity is defined as the variety within ecosystems, and is a function of

Abiotic parameters

Biotic parameters

ABIOTIC

parameters

BIOTIC

parameters

Temperature

Salinity

Geomorphology

Pressure

Altitude

Light

Wave energy/ current

Herbivory pressure

Predation

Competition

Food resources

Mutualism/ symbiosis/

Parasitism/

Commensalism

Healthy River Systems

 Good water quality

 Vegetation buffer

 Supports flood plain farming

 Low sediment load

DEGRADED RIVER SYSTEMS

 Restricted flow

 No riparian zone

 No effluent control

Increasing human pressure is accelerating environmental change throughout the world, threatening water security for humans and aquatic biodiversity .

Watershed pollution in combination with other nutrient sources such as atmospheric deposition, has resulted in widespread nutrient pollution of aquatic ecosystems

THE SDGs attempt to address these problems…

Water conservation is a key SDG

Interrelationships Between Ecosystem Components

“Everything is connected to everything else”

Interrelationships Example

abiotic x abiotic temperature and rainfall = climate

abiotic x biotic water temperature predicts fish species

biotic x abiotic human pollution of the environment

biotic x biotic predator/prey relationships, life cycles, trophic

levels

CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS ACCORDING TO CARBON SOURCE

CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS ACCORDING TO ENERGY SOURCE

PHOTOTROPHIC CHEMOTROPHIC

AUTOTROPHIC (CO2)

All plants All algae

Photosynthetic bacteria

Hydrogen Bacteria Iron baceria

Sulfur bacteria Denitrifying

bacteria

HETEROTROPHIC [organic compounds such as acetate, sulfides]

Nonsulfur Purple Bacteria

All higher animals, most micro- organisms

Consumers = Heterotrophs

Primary consumers = herbivores = rabbit: eat plant material

Secondary consumers = carnivores = predators = coyotes: prey are herbivores and other animals.

Parasites = Consumers = Heterotrophs

 Parasites = predator = either plant or animal: prey are plants or animals.

Nonfeeding (Symbiotic) Relationships

+ And + = Mutualism. Both species benefit by the interaction between the two species. Honey bee and flower

+ And 0 = Commensalism. One species benefits from the interaction and the other is unaffected. Remora fish and shark

Nonfeeding (Symbiotic) Relationships

+ And – = One species benefits from the interaction and the other is adversely affected. Examples are predation, parasitism, and disease.

 – And – = Competition. Both species are adversely affected by the interaction.

Two people and One cookie

BENEFITS TO ME

BENEFITS TO YOU

+ and + We split the cookie SHARING

+ and – I eat all the cookie SELFISHNESS

– and + I give the cookie to you, you are hungrier ALTURISM

– and – I don’t want the cookie but won’t give it to you SPITEFULNESS

Resource Partitioning: Reducing Competition

Abiotic Factors

 Law of Limiting Factors:

“Every species (both plant and animal) has an optimum range, zones of stress, and limits of tolerance with respect to every biotic factor.”

Application of the Law of Limiting Factors

Compare the “tolerance” differences for FISH

temperature (cold or warm).

oxygen concentration (high or low).

salinity (high or low).

Oxygen Tolerance Curves for Two Different Fish Species

Diagram the temperature tolerance curves for each fish species.

Climate and Major Biomes

YOU TUBE BREAK COLORADO RIVER DELTA RESTORATION

Bringing a pulse of Life to the delta

ESSAY #5: What is the point of restoration projects?

Restorations are expensive, take years to implement, and involve many partners and stakeholders. Take the example of the Colorado River Delta Flooding project, and explain to your reader why resotrations are both important ecologically and important to local communities.

Identify Biomes A to E Based on Temperature and Precipitation Levels:

PrecipitationLow High

High

A

B

C

D

E

HOT and DRY

COLD and

DRY

Temperate

and Seasonal

rain

COLD and

LOTS OF

SNOW

HOT and

RAINY

Identify Biomes A to E Based on Temperature and Precipitation Levels: Answers Next Slide

PrecipitationLow High

High

A

B

C

D

ETUNDRA

Polar areas:

Arctic sea ice

Antarctica

GRASSLAND

or Prairie

RAIN

FOREST

SUBTROPICAL

DESERT

SOLAR RADIATION – ENERGY TO PLANTS

FORESTS

Warn continental – Great

Lakes, Northern Ohio

• Only occurs in the northern hemisphere because of the large land masses – strong seasonal contrasts between 40-55 degrees North latitudes • No dry season • 4 – 7 months were temperatures exceed 10oC • Mixed boreal and deciduous forests

Hot continental – St. Louis to

New York

 South of warm continental  Humid hot summers, exceptional

growing season  This ecoregion (division) around the

world most heavily populated and influenced by man, forest cleared, wildlife gone (forest remains in mountains like Appalachian mountains)

 Wheat, soybeans and rice grown in this climate world wide

Subtropical – Southeastern

US – Louisiana to Carolinas

 High humidity, absence of really cold winters –

 Present in both hemispheres  Forest is natural vegetation in most of this

ecosystem – evergreen oaks, laurels, magnolias

 Soils poor for cultivation – tight nutrient recycling in soils (like tropical forests)

Marine or maritime –

Northern California

 Restricted to continental west coasts, climate influenced by sea temperatures – temperate and rainy

 Needle leaf forests, temperate rainforests

Savannah – dry tropical grassland

Prairie – Central US

Oklahoma through Dakotas,

to Wisconsin

 Grasslands occur as transition zones

between forests and deserts

 We have tall grass prairie (north)and

short grass prairie (south) in US

(Pampas of SA)

 Sub-humid – high rainfall – but HIGH

evapo-transporation

 Arid west side of humid continental

climate

 Deep soils, less leaching

Mediterranean – Southern

California, Los Angeles

 Western margins of continents 30-45

degrees North

 Distinct wet and dry seasons

 Cool wet winters, dry hot summers

 On 2% of earth’s surface – but most

comfortable climate for people

 Chaparral, evergreen forests deep tap

roots

 Citrus fruits, grapes,olives

Arctic tundra

ECOSYSTEM DOMAIN-

largest in scale

DIVISION – within a domain, mainly determined by mountains, topography

ECOSYSTEM PROVINCE – smallest unit, what popular literature calls

“ecosystems” or biomes

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