Biology

Figure 34.4:1: Magnetic field lines

Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that produces super antigens and toxins causing skin and soft tissue infections in communities or hospitals. Antibiotic therapy is not greatly proficient because the intensive and routine usage has led to emergence of both community and hospital linked methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus. A study conducted on the effect of paused intensity of magnetic field and th4e pulse number on bactericidal property of pulsed magnetic field in sterilization of fresh juice of watermelon. The results showed that the overall effect of the bactericidal was reinforced as the pulse number and magnetic field intensity was 21 and 2.52 respectively. Effects of electromagnetic field on bacteria study are important not only for environmental stress influences investigating on biological systems but also to discover the possibility of controlling the sensitivity of bacteria toward environmental antibiotics.

Magnetic field effect on growth and antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria Staphylococcus aureus was tested. This was aimed to examine the exposure effect of different magnetic fields that is; 400, 800, 1200 and 1600 Gauss for 2 to 24 hours on the rate of growth and antibiotic sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus. The bacteria were isolated from the medical case and identified using a system known as API STAPH. The vulnerability of the antibiotic of staphylococcus aureus measured according to the technique of diffusion. The results exhibited an important logarithm reduction in the number of staphylococcus aureus treated with high frequency magnetic field. The sensitivity of staphylococcus aureus to antibiotic increase during a short period of 4 to 6 hours and increase its resistance to the same antibiotic at a long term exposure of 18-24 hours.

Also, sSome biochemical tests results also indicated positive effects of magnetic fields on the biochemical properties. The enzymes bacterial lactose, trehalose, sucrose, mannitol, acetyl-glucosamine and maltose were affected by magnretic field at 24 hours of incubation. From the research, it is concluded that the cellular membrane of the microorganism had been affected by the fields of magnet (Lister and Horswill, 2014). Furthermore, the response amplified when the intensity of the magnetic fields increased. According to this, the effects of magnetic field on bacteria are considered bactericidal and thus a change in the number of cells or the change measured in the sensitivity of membrane to antibiotic demonstrated the change in the structure of the cells internally.

Figure 34.4.2: Absorbance at 600 nm of S.aureus cells with different exposure periods.

It was found that magnetic fields increased the phase of logarithm of staphylococcus aureus growth within 4 hours of treatment but reduced growth curve after 8 hours period.

There was a change which was considerable in the rate of growth of S. aureus. A decrease in the colony forming units started instantly after the magnetic field effect on the bacteria could be deliberated as bactericidal. These results are concurring with

Figure 34.4.3: Growth rate of S. aureus for each group.

others who reported the exposure of salmonella typhi, E. coli and S. aureus to the magnetic field has the same effects (Kim et al, 2013).

on the bacteria could be deliberated as bactericidal. These results are concurring with others who reported the exposure of salmonella typhi, E. coli and S. aureus to the magnetic field has the same effects (Kim et al, 2013).

Antibiotic test of exposed and unexposed S.aureus to magnetic field. 

R: Resistance, M.F: magnetic field, S-R: Subunit-Ribosome.

The above table showed the antibiotics susceptibility test at various exposure periods 2,4,6,8 and 24 hours which estimated according to the action mode. The results indicated that S. aureus were sensitive for ceftazidiumceftazidime, gentamycin, rifampcin, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone and tetracycline where else resistant to metronidazole (Kobayashi et al, 2015). The diameters of the stimulation or inhibition zone of the different forces of magnet were measured after 24 hours from the process of exposure compared with samples unexposed. These results concurred with a study which found that moderate intensity static fields were able to lead to a reduction in resistance of E. coli and sensitivity. In addition, found that the possibility of magnetic field interfering with the charge on the antibiotic molecule or surface charges of the membrane altering the antibiotic penetration rate may exist.

Also it was exhibited that magnetic field can affect functions of membrane however, the magnetic field could relate with other specific process that help the bacteria adapt to the new environment (Carrey et al, 2013). Due to this, the bacteria are able to retort to stresses of environment by initiating suitable inducible systems like DNA repair system and in turn destroy processes which increase the variability of genes.

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