Biology

 

In this course you will be completing a learning activity, a three-part project in which you will be building a hypothetical protein. Proteins – large complex molecules – are major building blocks of all living organisms.  Over the next four units you will complete three assignments that will guide you in the building of your hypothetical protein and gaining an understanding of mutations that could occur in this protein.

For Part 1 of the Genetics Project, you will need to name your protein and provide a description of the hypothetical function of the protein. You will need to relate the chemical composition and levels of structure found in your protein. In addition, explain the roles of DNA and RNA in protein synthesis.

 

For this Assignment, you are building a hypothetical protein. Proteins – large complex molecules – are major building blocks of all living organisms. In this unit you will continue to build your hypothetical protein.

 

For part 2 of the Genetics Project, you will be focusing on sequence. Remember your explanation of the roles DNA and RNA played in the formation of your hypothetical protein. For this activity you will first provide the completely hypothetical sequence of your protein. Next you will need to supply the corresponding RNA and complementary DNA sequences.

 

Amino acids are building blocks of proteins. Using the 20 amino acids that make up all proteins, you need to design a protein with 100 amino acids. Remember the following principles when constructing your protein sequence:

 

  • You may integrate any combination of the 20 amino acids.
  • Ensure that your protein has a start and stop codon.
  • Be careful that the protein does not have an internal stop codon.
  • The protein sequence should be written using the three-letter designator for an amino acid, e.g., Proline is Pro, Methionine is Met.

 

The genetic code is a set of rules for which the information in genetic material such as DNA and RNA can be translated into proteins. The genetic code is read in nucleotide triplets or codons. Using your protein sequence you will need to:

 

  • Supply the corresponding RNA sequence using the Genetic Code. You can find the genetic code in your textbook and the provided template. You can write the sequence in triplet form (i.e., XXX XXX XXX).
  • Now that you have the correct RNA sequence you will need to use your knowledge of complementary base pairing rules to deduce the DNA sequence of your hypothetical protein. Remember that RNA contains the unique base of Uracil (U) and DNA contains the base Thymidine (T). Again this sequence can be written in triplet code (i.e., XXX XXX XXX).

For the third and final part of this Assignment you will create mutations in your protein. Mutagens are agents that can alter the DNA of an organism. These changes or damage to the DNA can have varying effects on the protein product that the cell makes. For this part of the assignment you will need to complete the following:

  • You will need to mutate your DNA sequence. Make changes to the DNA sequence of your hypothetical protein. You will make four separate changes or mutations.  The mutations should be indicated in your DNA, RNA and protein sequences. The four types of mutations that you will need to demonstrate are:
    1. Nonsense mutation
    2. Frameshift mutation
    3. Point mutation
    4. Insertion mutation
  • Explain the effects of each mutation on your final protein.
  • Provide a possible cause or source of each type of mutation.
  • This project does not need to be in essay format. It is not necessary to include an introduction or conclusion.
  • You should list the DNA and RNA sequence using a single letter to indicate a base, e.g., adenine is A, and thymine is T.
  • The protein sequence should be written using the three-letter designator for an amino acid, e.g., Proline is Pro, and Methionine is Met.

 

  • gene

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