23 of 45

When you examine fluid that you have drawn from a blood vessel, you find that it is relatively high in carbon dioxide and waste products. Assuming that the fluid comes from a healthy individual, you conclude that the blood vessel from which you have drawn the blood could have been __________.

[removed] a venule
[removed] an artery
[removed] an arteriole
[removed] the aorta
[removed] either an artery or an arteriole


24 of 45

White blood cells play a particularly important role in __________.

[removed] carrying oxygen
[removed] carrying carbon dioxide
[removed] blood clotting
[removed] hemoglobin transport
[removed] fighting infections


25 of 45

Temperature regulation, hormone distribution, and exchanging nutrients and wastes with the interstitial fluid are all functions of the _____ system.

[removed] respiratory
[removed] digestive
[removed] immune
[removed] circulatory
[removed] nervous


26 of 45

Animals need oxygen because it __________.

[removed] plays a role in obtaining energy from food
[removed] counterbalances the CO2 in the atmosphere
[removed] helps animals synthesize proteins
[removed] is necessary to make CO2
[removed] is needed to deliver hemoglobin to all the cells in the body


27 of 45

In the human respiratory system, gas exchange occurs across the cells of the _____.

[removed] diaphragm
[removed] trachea
[removed] bronchi
[removed] pharynx
[removed] alveoli


28 of 45

When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes leads initially to the urge to breathe again?

[removed] rising oxygen level
[removed] rising carbon dioxide level
[removed] falling oxygen level
[removed] falling carbon dioxide level
[removed] both rising carbon dioxide level and falling oxygen levels


29 of 45

Which of the following is one of the body’s first lines of defense against infection?

[removed] a group of nonspecific antibodies
[removed] several nonspecific amino acid toxins
[removed] several nonspecific obstacles such as skin and mucous membranes
[removed] increased production of certain hormones and changes in the blood circulation
[removed] an increasing in the breathing rate


30 of 45

When you cut yourself, the damaged cells immediately release which of the following chemical alarm signals?

[removed] interferon
[removed] complement
[removed] histamine
[removed] pyrogens
[removed] anti-interferon


31 of 45

Why do diseases involving widespread infection usually result in a fever?

[removed] The rapid multiplication of the invading microorganisms results in extra heat production.
[removed] The inflammatory and immune responses result in extra heat production.
[removed] The invading microorganisms trick the brain’s temperature control center into raising the temperature so they can grow better.
[removed] The brain’s temperature control center responds to inflammation by creating a hot environment unfavorable to microorganisms.
[removed] Fevers insure that you will stay in bed longer so that your body can recover from the illness.


32 of 45

The appendix, bone marrow, thymus, and spleen are all parts of the __________ system.

[removed] immune
[removed] circulatory
[removed] excretory
[removed] renal
[removed] digestive


33 of 45

Antibodies __________.

[removed] are shaped like the letter B
[removed] are generalists in that any antibody can bind to any antigen
[removed] consist of three polypeptide chains
[removed] assist in destroying particular antigens
[removed] All of the above are true


34 of 45

Hormones regulate __________.

[removed] growth
[removed] reproduction
[removed] water balance
[removed] metabolism
[removed] all of the above


35 of 45

Which of the following best describes the relationship of insulin to glucagon?

[removed] They work together to prepare the body to deal with stress.
[removed] Insulin stimulates the pancreas to secrete glucagon.
[removed] High levels of insulin inhibit pancreatic secretion of glucagon.
[removed] They are antagonistic hormones.
[removed] Insulin is a steroid hormone; glucagon is a protein hormone.


36 of 45

What moves the human egg through the oviduct?

[removed] the beating of the egg’s cilia
[removed] the beating of the egg’s flagella
[removed] rhythmic contractions of the oviduct
[removed] rhythmic contractions of the uterus
[removed] the beating of cilia in the oviduct


37 of 45

In a human male reproductive system:

[removed] a circumcision removes a portion of the scrotum.
[removed] the vas deferens conducts sperm between the testis and epididymis.
[removed] the sperm travel through the urethra during ejaculation.
[removed] sperm mature in the prostate gland.
[removed] sperm are produced in the bladder and released through the scrotum.


38 of 45

A vaccine contains __________.

[removed] a killed pathogen
[removed] weakened pathogen
[removed] non-infective fragments of a pathogen
[removed] all of the above may be used in a vaccine
[removed] Vaccines only contain genetically-modified virus particles

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