Biology

PowerPoint® Lecture Slides prepared by Barbara Heard, Atlantic Cape Community College

C H A P T E R

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© Annie Leibovitz/Contact Press Images

9

Muscles and Muscle Tissue: Part A

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Muscle Tissue

  • Nearly half of body’s mass
  • Transforms chemical energy (ATP) to directed mechanical energy  exerts force
  • Three types
  • Skeletal
  • Cardiac
  • Smooth
  • Myo, mys, and sarco – prefixes for muscle

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Types of Muscle Tissue

  • Skeletal muscles
  • Organs attached to bones and skin
  • Elongated cells called muscle fibers
  • Striated (striped)
  • Voluntary (i.e., conscious control)
  • Contract rapidly; tire easily; powerful
  • Require nervous system stimulation

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Types of Muscle Tissue

  • Cardiac muscle
  • Only in heart; bulk of heart walls
  • Striated
  • Can contract without nervous system stimulation
  • Involuntary

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Types of Muscle Tissue

  • Smooth muscle
  • In walls of hollow organs, e.g., stomach, urinary bladder, and airways
  • Not striated
  • Can contract without nervous system stimulation
  • Involuntary

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Table 9.3 Comparison of Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth Muscle (1 of 4)

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Special Characteristics of Muscle Tissue

  • Excitability (responsiveness): ability to receive and respond to stimuli
  • Contractility: ability to shorten forcibly when stimulated
  • Extensibility: ability to be stretched
  • Elasticity: ability to recoil to resting length

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Muscle Functions

  • Four important functions
  • Movement of bones or fluids (e.g., blood)
  • Maintaining posture and body position
  • Stabilizing joints
  • Heat generation (especially skeletal muscle)
  • Additional functions
  • Protects organs, forms valves, controls pupil size, causes “goosebumps”

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Skeletal Muscle

  • Connective tissue sheaths of skeletal muscle
  • Support cells; reinforce whole muscle
  • External to internal
  • Epimysium: dense irregular connective tissue surrounding entire muscle; may blend with fascia
  • Perimysium: fibrous connective tissue surrounding fascicles (groups of muscle fibers)
  • Endomysium: fine areolar connective tissue surrounding each muscle fiber

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 9.1 Connective tissue sheaths of skeletal muscle: epimysium, perimysium, and endomysium.

Bone

Tendon

Epimysium

Epimysium

Perimysium

Endomysium

Muscle fiber

in middle of

a fascicle

Blood vessel

Perimysium

wrapping a fascicle

Endomysium

(between individual

muscle fibers)

Muscle

fiber

Perimysium

Fascicle

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Table 9.1 Structure and Organizational Levels of Skeletal Muscle (1 of 3)

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Table 9.1 Structure and Organizational Levels of Skeletal Muscle (2 of 3)

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Table 9.1 Structure and Organizational Levels of Skeletal Muscle (3 of 3)

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Microscopic Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle Fiber

  • Long, cylindrical cell
  • 10 to 100 µm in diameter; up to 30 cm long
  • Multiple peripheral nuclei
  • Sarcolemma = plasma membrane
  • Sarcoplasm = cytoplasm
  • Glycosomes for glycogen storage, myoglobin for O2 storage
  • Modified structures: myofibrils, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and T tubules

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