nstructions: Respond to the following questions by including a typed explanation. You are allowed to use your book, your notes, and your classmates as sources to answer any question. Written responses must be in your own words. Your work cannot be similar to the work of your classmates. The quiz is due as a printed hard copy at the beginning of lecture on Monday, February 8th. Your assignment must be typed. Do not print out this entire document. Only print out your answers. No excuses. No electronic copies will be accepted.

Pandemic- when an infectious disease is spread throughout continents. Americas- South and Central America, Mexico.

Glycosylation site- A place where sugars are added. In this case on the surface of the Zika virus. A glycosylation site is important, as a virus uses this as a way to gain entrance into a host. The host is the A. aegypti mosquito.

Envelope protein- Virus are covered in proteins and sugars. It is within the envelope protein where the glycosylation sites resides.

Vector- A virus uses a host as a place to reproduce, but the host is not infected by the virus. The host is a carrier for a virus.

Background: The Zika virus is a disease transmitted primarily by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Symptoms of the disease are usually mild, but include: fever, rash, joint pain, and red eyes. As of May 2015 to present, the Zika virus is considered a new type of pandemic with thousands of people in the Americas infected daily. Although symptoms may not be severe, there are great risks for women who are pregnant. There have been more than 4,000 reports of children born with microcephaly, from women who have been infected with the Zika virus. Microcephaly is a congenital condition where babies do not have complete brain development. Throughout the Americas, some countries have recommended women to postpone pregnancy for at least 2 years until this pandemic is under control.

The Zika virus was first discovered in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. Since then, the Zika virus has moved to Asia, and to date, found in the Americas. The figures below are based on how the Zika virus is evolving on the molecular level by the loss of a glycosylation site in the envelope protein of the Zika virus that is required to use Aedes aegypti as a vector. The virus life cycle occurs while the Zika virus is living inside A. aegypti. The loss of a glycosylation site in the Zika virus suggests the Zika virus may not require a specific host.

NAME: ______________________

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Bio 112 Olave Spring 2016


Figure 1. Geographic spread of ZIKV in Africa and Asia. The directed lines connect the most probable sources and target localities of viral lineages (shown by arrows), with widths proportional to the posterior probabilities and values shown in red. Only plausible routes with probabilities above 50% are shown. The distinct introductions into Senegal and Coˆ te d’Ivoire were represented by different colors. The estimated time to the most recent common ancestor of strains from different countries are shown with 95% posterior time intervals in parenthesis and could be interpreted as the oldest possible year of introduction of that lineage at that locality.

Bio 112 Olave Spring 2016


NAME: ______________________


Figure 2. Mapping of predicted glycosylation sites on envelope protein of ZIKV. A) Alignment of E protein showing predicted glycosylation sites. Red arrows point to O-linked glycosylation sites (Ser or Thr residues) and the yellow arrow points to the N-linked glycosylation site (Asn-X- Thr motif). B) Tridimensional structure of E protein. Red beads indicate O-linked glycosylation sites and the yellow bead indicates the unique N-linked glycosylation site.

Bio 112 Olave Spring 2016


NAME: ______________________



Question: Write a 1-2 page double –spaced summary on how the background information given to you, Figures 1 and 2, and your reading from Chapter 19 help explain mechanisms in evolution. Please use specific examples from your text reading in Chapter 19. Please include the implications associated with understanding the evolution of the Zika virus can aid in combating the current pandemic.

Bio 112 Olave Spring 2016

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