Biology

Chapter 1: Learning about Life

Copyright © 2019 Pearson Education, Inc. 1

Name ________________________ Period _________

Chapter 1: Learning about Life

Guided Reading Activities

Chapter Content: The Scientific Study of Life

Complete the following questions as you read the first chapter content—The Scientific Study of Life:

1. is the study of life.

2. Jane Goodall is famous for her research on chimpanzees. Dr. Goodall observed the chimpan- zees for long periods of time and made numerous observations of them that she recorded very carefully. Which stage of scientific inquiry is this considered?

A) Exploration

B) Testing

C) Making a hypothesis

D) Drawing a conclusion

3. Use the following figure to answer this question. Assume your results reject your initial hypothesis as indicated. Briefly explain why you would not return to the exploration portion of the process to change the question instead of revising the hypothesis.

Hypothesis

The remote’s batteries are dead.

TESTING • Forming hypotheses • Making predictions • Running experiments • Gathering data • Interpreting data • Drawing conclusions

Prediction

If I replace the batteries, the

remote will work.

Experiment

I replace the batteries with

new ones.

Experiment does not support

hypothesis; revise hypothesis or

pose new one.

Experiment supports hypothesis;

make additional predictions

and test them.

Revise

EXPLORATION

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Chapter 1: Learning about Life

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4. Match the following terms with the best definition: data, science, hypothesis, experiments, and peer review

Scientific tests where conditions can be controlled:

A tentative explanation for a set of observations:

A thorough review of scientific results prior to publication:

Inquiry into how the natural world functions:

Recorded observations:

5. The following figure indicates that the testing and communication components of science connect to each other. Briefly explain how these two components interact to strengthen each other. Hint—think back to peer review

6. An often misunderstood concept is the difference between a scientific theory and a hypothesis. Briefly explain what you would tell a student who believes a scientific theory and a hypothesis are the same.

EXPLORATION • Making observations • sking uestions • eeking information

TESTING • Forming hypotheses • Making predictions • Running experiments • Gathering data • Interpreting data • Drawing conclusions

COMMUNICATION • haring data • btaining feedback • ublishing papers • Replicating findings • uilding consensus

OUTCOMES • uilding knowledge • olving problems • Developing new technologies • enefiting society

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Chapter 1: Learning about Life

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7. Use the following table to compare a control group to an experimental group.

Control group Experimental group Description

8. On page 8 of your textbook the authors describe an experiment in which the amount of butter is changed between two cookie recipes. Imagine a scenario in which a person also changes the type of flour used (whole wheat flour versus regular bleached flour). Is this still an effective controlled experiment? Briefly explain your answer either way.

9. Use the following figure to answer this question. By day 8 how far have the baby turtles traveled?

10. How many factors does a scientist want to differ between the experimental and control groups?

A) 2

B) 0

C) 1

D) 3

250

200

150

100

50

0

Days after release

D is

ta nc

e tr

av el

ed (k

m )

0 14128 10642

Key

Average of 24 green sea turtles verage of oating buckets

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Chapter 1: Learning about Life

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11. You are a research scientist for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) interested in perform- ing a controlled experiment to determine the effects of caffeine on human blood pressure. One group of people will get caffeinated coffee and one will get decaffeinated coffee. Briefly explain why you would want that to be the only variable that differs between the two groups.

12. A is a fake treatment given to patients in the control group.

13. A friend tells you her grandfather’s pancakes are superior to all other pancakes because he puts only hand-churned butter from llamas into the batter. This is an example of what kind of evidence?

Chapter Content: The Properties of Life

Complete the following questions as you read the first chapter content—The Properties of Life:

1. A giant sequoia tree is very different from a human. List two properties these two organisms would exhibit despite all of their obvious differences.

2. A smart phone is not alive. List three characteristics of life that the phone does not exhibit.

3. List the properties of life.

Chapter Content: Major Themes in Biology

Complete the following questions as you read the first chapter content—Major Themes in Biology:

1. The branched structure of human lungs significantly increases the surface area for gas exchange. This greatly increases the efficiency of gas exchange within the lungs. Which of the following unifying themes of biology does this example illustrate?

A) Evolution

B) Relationship to structure and function

C) Interaction within biological systems

D) Information flow

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Chapter 1: Learning about Life

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2. Human growth hormone (HGH) is necessary for growth during human adolescence. Pituitary dwarfism is a condition that results from the inability of a person to produce HGH. Luckily, the human gene for HGH can be inserted into E. coli bacteria, which are able to make our HGH. The resulting HGH is used by people who are unable to make their own. What prop- erty about hereditary information makes this possible?

3. Energy and chemicals move through ecosystems in different ways. Energy flows an ecosystem, while nutrients are constantly through the ecosystem.

4. What level of biological organization is represented by Figure 1.14 on page 12 of your textbook?

C ol

or iz

ed S

EM 5

,4 00

*

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Chapter 1: Learning about Life

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5. What about Figure 1.13 on page 12 of your textbook?

6. Even though they have several differences, a bacterium and a human cell will both contain DNA. With respect to evolution, what does this fact suggest?

7. True or false: If false, please make it a correct statement. A rancher uses a particular chicken for breeding purposes because, on average, she observed that the chicken laid more eggs than other chickens. The rancher selecting the desirable trait would be considered an example of natural selection.

Major Theme Connection:

1. As a general rule, viruses are not considered to be alive based on several reasons. One such reason is that some viruses use RNA as their genetic material instead of DNA. Which of the five biological themes does this violate? Briefly explain why.

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Chapter 1: Learning about Life

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Common Thread Connection:

1. A scientist at the University of Iowa uses a microscope to observe cells in the brain known as microglia. He makes observations about their structure, location, and activity. The scientist eventually observes the cells undergo a sudden and radical shift in their structure/shape and their motility (ability to move). He asks himself questions about what is causing this shift in behaviors and begins to design an experiment to determine the answer. Briefly describe how the scientist practiced both the exploration and testing aspects of scientific inquiry.

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