Chapter 9- Cellular Respiration
1. The overall reaction for Cellular Respiration:
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 ( 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP
In this set of reactions glucose is “broken down” into simpler molecules and electrons are pulled from glucose. When electrons are taken away from glucose, glucose is [oxidized/reduced] (to CO2), and the oxygen becomes [oxidized/reduced] (to water).
[Anabolic/Catabolic] reactions break down more complex molecules into simpler ones and in the process release energy.
Reactions that release energy that can be used to do work are [endergonic/exergonic].
Therefore, aerobic respiration is a(n) [anabolic/catabolic] process and is [endergonic/exergonic].
2. Transfer of electrons during Cellular Respiration:
(1) (2) (3)
Glucose ( NAD+ ( NADH ( electron transport chain (ETC) to Oxygen
Enzyme that pulls electrons from glucose
Number of Hydrogen ATOMS pulled:
Number of electrons in one hydrogen atom:
Number of protons in one hydrogen atom:
Number of electrons transferred to NAD+ to make NADH:
Number of protons transferred to NAD+ to make NADH:
Number of electrons put into ETC
3. Glycolysis: Describe the major differences between the energy investment phase and energy pay-off phase.
Energy investment phase
Energy pay-off phase
Number of ATP used or produced?
4. If you start with 10 molecules of glucose at the beginning of glycolysis, how many of each molecule would you have at the end of glycolysis?
5a. Most important molecule produced in glycolysis? WHY?
b. Most important molecule produced in the Krebs cycle? WHY?
c. Most important molecule produced in oxidative phosphorylation? WHY?
6. Are the compounds listed used, produced or neither?
The Krebs cycle?
ADP + P
7. A toxin has rendered one of the proton pumps of the electron transport chain (located on the inner membrane of the mitochondria) non-functional.
A. How would this effect the production of ATP (increase, decrease, no change)?
8. You are running away from a bear (yikes!) and the oxygen demand in your muscle cells is exceeding your oxygen supply. Without sufficient oxygen, electrons will not be pulled through the electron transport chain.
A. Describe how would this effect ATP production (increase, decrease, no change)?
B. Describe how would this effect NADH production (increase, decrease, no change)?
C. Describe how would this effect pyruvate production (increase, decrease, no change)?
Chapter 10- Photosynthesis
1. The summary reaction for photosynthesis can be written as:
Sunlight Energy + 6 CO2 + 6 H2O ® C6H12O6 + 6 O2
-When electrons are pulled from water, water is [oxidized/reduced] to oxygen.
-Later in the process, these electrons are added to carbon dioxide molecules [oxidizing/reducing] them to glucose.
-This reaction is [anabolic/catabolic] and [endergonic/exergonic].
2. The various reactions in photosynthesis are spatially segregated from each other within the chloroplast. Draw a simplified diagram of a chloroplast and include these parts: outer membrane, inner membrane, thylakoid membrane, thylakoid space, stroma.
You are not required to submit a drawing, however be sure to understand the orientation of the parts of this organelle as it is vital to your understanding of the process of photosynthesis.
In your diagram, label where the:
A. light reactions occur.
B. Calvin cycle occurs.
Provide an explanation of the 8 steps of the light reactions of photosynthesis:
3. In photosynthesis, the reduction of carbon dioxide to form glucose is carried out in a controlled series of reactions. In general, each step or reaction in the sequence requires the input of energy. The sun is the ultimate source of this energy.
Are the compounds used or produced in:
The Calvin cycle?
ADP + P
4. If you start with 12 molecules of CO2 at the beginning of the Calvin cycle, how many molecule of glucose could you make?
5. If you wanted to make 4 molecules of glucose, how many molecules of CO2 would you need?