Biology

Name:       Sec:

Chapter 3: The Cell, The Fundamental Unit of Life

Module 3.5 The nucleus houses DNA packaged as chromosomes.

1. The       houses the majority of a cell’s DNA.

2. Complete the following diagram of a nucleus:

3. You are a biologist looking at samples of pond water. Using a microscope to investigate your samples, you identify a cell with a nucleus. Briefly explain how you know immediately that this is not a prokaryote. Additionally, without further investigation, would you be able to determine if it was a plant or animal cell?

4. Complete the following table regarding the nucleus:

Nuclear Envelope Nuclear Pores Nucleolus Nucleus
Function

5. Complete the following diagram that illustrates that relationship between DNAchromatin, and chromosomes:

A

C

B

a. 

b. 

c. 

Module 3.6 Several organelles participate in the production of proteins.

6. True or False; If false make it a true statement: DNA controls the functions of a cell by performing all of those functions itself.

7.       is the process by which an RNA copy is made from DNA.

8. You discover a new drug that blocks the movement of substances through the nuclear pores of the nucleus. Would you drug affect transcription, translation, or both? Briefly explain your answer.

9. From the information in question 8, would your drug have any effect on bacteria? Briefly explain your answer either way.

10. In transcription, DNA is to RNA as       it to       in translation.

11. Insulin is a protein hormone that is released into the bloodstream from cells in your pancreas. Which of the following organelles is responsible for its export from the cell:

a. |_| ribosomes

b. |_| endoplasmic reticulum

c. |_| golgi apparatus

d. |_| nucleus

12. Complete the following table regarding the involvement of organelles in protein synthesis:

Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Golgi Apparatus Vesicles
Function

13. You expect cells that are responsible for the synthesis of hormones (like testosterone) to be rich in which of the following:

a. |_| ribosomes

b. |_| rough endoplasmic reticulum

c. |_| smooth endoplasmic reticulum

d. |_| golgi apparatus

14. Label the following diagram, which is an overview of protein synthesis:

I

H

G

F

E

D

C

B

A

a.       f.

b.       g.

c.       h.

d.       i.

e. 

Module 3.7 Chloroplasts and mitochondria provide energy to the cell.

15. True or False; If false, make a true statement: An animal cell contains chloroplasts and mitochondria.

16. Plants use       to power the production of sugar.

17. The process of photosynthesis occurs primarily in a plant’s leaves. What organelle (related to photosynthesis) would you expect to be present in the cell of a plant’s leaves?

a. |_| ribosomes

b. |_| chloroplasts

c. |_| nucleus

d. |_| mitochondria

18. Complete the following diagram of a chloroplast:

     

19. What happens to the CO2 you release as a result of cellular respiration?

20. Complete the following diagram of a mitochondria:

21. CO2 is to       as       is to cellular respiration.

22. Briefly explain how animals and plants work to cycle the elements carbon and oxygen through an ecosystem.

23. Complete the following table comparing chloroplasts and mitochondria:

Mitochondria Chloroplasts
Similarities

Differences

Module 3.8 Various cellular organelles provide storage, movement, and shape.

24.       are organelles that can store water, nutrients, toxins, or fat.

25. True or False, If false make it a true statement: Cilia are more numerous than flagella.

26. Any drug that inhibits the function of flagella likely affects what cellular function?

27. Complete the following table regarding organelles:

Vacuole Cilia Flagellum Cell Wall Cytoskeleton
Function

28. Certain human cells are highly motile, which means they can move throughout the tissues of your body. Other than a flagellum or cilia, what other organelle is directly involved in a cell moving through your tissues?

29. Which of the following is responsible for providing a connection that holds cells together:

a. |_| cell wall

b. |_| vacuole

c. |_| flagellum

d. |_| extracellular matrix

30. Label the diagram below, which illustrates the nucleus and cytoskeleton of a human cell:

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