Biology

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UMUC Biology 102/103

Lab 5: Meiosis

INSTRUCTIONS:

· On your own and without assistance, complete this Lab 5 Answer Sheet electronically and submit it via the Assignments Folder by the date listed in the Course Schedule (under Syllabus).

· To conduct your laboratory exercises, use the Laboratory Manual located under Course Content. Read the introduction and the directions for each exercise/experiment carefully before completing the exercises/experiments and answering the questions.

· Save your Lab 5 Answer Sheet in the following format: LastName_Lab5 (e.g., Smith_Lab5).

· You should submit your document as a Word (.doc or .docx) or Rich Text Format (.rtf) file for best compatibility.

Pre-Lab Questions

1. Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis.

2. What major event occurs during interphase?

Experiment 1: Following Chromosomal DNA Movement through Meiosis

Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment

Trial 1 – Meiotic Division Without Crossing Over Beads Diagram:

Take pictures of your beads for each phase of meiosis I and II without crossing over. Include notes with your name, date and meiotic stage on index cards in the pictures. Please use the lowest resolution possible so that your file does not become too large to submit.

Insert pictures here:

Prophase I

Metaphase I

Anaphase I

Telophase I

Prophase II

Metaphase II

Anaphase II

Telophase I

Cytokinesis

Trial 2 – Meiotic Division with Crossing Over Beads Diagram:

Take pictures of your beads for each phase of meiosis I and II with crossing over.  Include notes with your name, date and meiotic stage on index cards in the pictures.  Please use the lowest resolution possible so that your file does not become too large to submit.

Insert pictures here:

Prophase I

Metaphase I

Anaphase I

Telophase I

Prophase II

Metaphase II

Anaphase II

Telophase I

Cytokinesis

Post-Lab Questions

1. What is the ploidy of the DNA at the end of meiosis I? What about at the end of meiosis II?

2. How are meiosis I and meiosis II different?

3. Why do you use non-sister chromatids to demonstrate crossing over?

4. What combinations of alleles could result from a crossover between BD and bd chromosomes?

5. How many chromosomes were present when meiosis I started?

6. How many nuclei are present at the end of meiosis II? How many chromosomes are in each?

7. Identify two ways that meiosis contributes to genetic recombination.

8. Why is it necessary to reduce the number of chromosomes in gametes, but not in other cells?

9. Blue whales have 44 chromosomes in every cell. Determine how many chromosomes you would expect to find in the following:

i. Sperm Cell:

ii. Egg Cell:

iii. Daughter Cell from Mitosis:

iv. Daughter Cell from Meiosis II:

10. Research and find a disease that is caused by chromosomal mutations. When does the mutation occur? What chromosomes are affected? What are the consequences?

11. Diagram what would happen if sexual reproduction took place for four generations using diploid (2n) cells.

Experiment 2: The Importance of Cell Cycle Control

For each of the five abnormalities you find online, copy and paste a picture of it (and be sure to cite the URL for the picture)—you will not be photographing your own results for this section of lab, because you’re doing your research online for the questions below.

Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment

1.  [paste in your online picture and cite the URL]

2.  [paste in your online picture and cite the URL]

3.  [paste in your online picture and cite the URL]

4.  [paste in your online picture and cite the URL]

5. [paste in your online picture and cite the URL]

Post-Lab Questions

1. Record your hypothesis from Step 1 in the Procedure section here.

2. What do your results indicate about cell cycle control?

3. Suppose a person developed a mutation in a somatic cell which diminishes the performance of the body’s natural cell cycle control proteins. This mutation resulted in cancer, but was effectively treated with a cocktail of cancer-fighting techniques. Is it possible for this person’s future children to inherit this cancer-causing mutation? Be specific when you explain why or why not.

4. Why do cells which lack cell cycle control exhibit karyotypes which look physically different than cells with normal cell cycle.

5. What are HeLa cells? Why are HeLa cells appropriate for this experiment?

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