Each question is worth 1 point, unless otherwise noted.
I’ve Fallen Over and I Can’t Get Up: Part I—”Children Playing in The Heat” Questions
1. What signs and symptoms did Greg exhibit when he was in the house?
2. Was Mrs. Myron correct when she said that Greg was dehydrated? Which signs and symptoms are consistent with this notion? Mrs. Myron thought that it was not necessary to seek medical treatment. Do you think she was correct?
I’ve Fallen Over and I Can’t Get Up: Part II—”The High School Football Game” Questions
1. What were Greg’s signs and symptoms before the game and during the warm up? Can you think of any reasons why Greg exhibited these signs and symptoms?
2. Greg is taken to the hospital after being injured during the game. What problems do you think the physicians will find with Greg when they examine him, or do you think he is only suffering from dehydration?
I’ve Fallen Over and I Can’t Get Up: Part III—”The Next Day In The Hospital” Questions
1. What are Greg’s new signs and symptoms? Do you have a diagnosis for Greg’s problem?
2. The chart below shows that when baroreceptors detect a drop in arterial blood pressure the sympathetic nervous system stimulates the heart and the smooth muscles in the walls of the arteries and the veins. Write increase or decrease to indicate the effect of the sympathetic nervous system on the variable in each numbered box. (3 points)
I’ve Fallen Over and I Can’t Get Up: Part IV—”The Neurologist” Questions
1. What evidence suggests that Greg suffered from a mild concussion?
I’ve Fallen Over and I Can’t Get Up: Part V—”The Follow-Up Visit” Questions
1. What is the relative position between the heart and the head (or baroreceptors in the carotid sinus) when you are lying down? What is the relative position between the heart and the head (or baroreceptors in the carotid sinus) when you are standing? What happens to the pressure of the blood as it travels against gravity in a standing person?
2. The baroreceptor reflex insures that the pressure of the blood entering the brain remains within defined limits, irrespective of body position. Under these circumstances, predict the blood pressure in the aorta of a standing person and a person who is lying flat on their back.
I’ve Fallen Over and I Can’t Get Up: Part VI—”The Diagnosis” Questions
1. How would a pacemaker help Greg’s condition?
2. If a pacemaker is implanted to control Greg’s heart rate, what life changes will be forced upon him? Do you think Greg will ever play competitive sports again?
Resistance Is Futile…Or Is It?: Part I—”HIV and the Immune System” Questions
1. What is the difference in how a virus and bacteria replicate and affect cells of the body?
2. In general, how does humoral and cellular immunity differ?
3. Understanding that HIV is a retrovirus (a virus that uses reverse transcriptase), answer the following questions:
a. What is reverse transcriptase?
b. How is a retrovirus different from other viruses?
c. How does a retrovirus infect a cell and reproduce?
4. In regards to reviewing the immune system, answer the following questions:
a. What is the difference between a T-cell and B-cell?
b. What is the difference between innate immune response and adaptive immune response?
5. In regards to the immune system and HIV, answer the following questions:
a. Individuals with HIV commonly die from pneumonia or cancer. Why is this the case?
A Case of Pharyngitis: Part I—”The Little Boy” Questions
1. The pediatrician described Jason’s pharynx, uvula, and tonsils as swollen and red. What are the four cardinal signs of inflammation, and how does each relate to changes in the blood vessels at a site of inflammation?
2. The exudate on Jason’s tonsils consisted primarily of neutrophils, and the CBC that was performed indicated that the number of neutrophils in his circulation was increased. What role do neutrophils play in the resolution of a bacterial infection? What role do macrophages have within fighting infections?
3. Jason’s physician noted that Jason’s cervical lymph nodes were enlarged, a condition referred to as lymphadenopathy. Describe the structure and function(s) of lymph nodes, and list the other organs and tissues that comprise the lymphatic system.
4. What can trigger a fever and what are its benefits in terms of combating an infection?