54. Which one of the following statements is true?

A) Natural selection works on variation already present in a population.

B) Natural selection works on non-heritable traits.

C) Individuals evolve through natural selection.

D) Organisms evolve structures that they need.

55. What does evolutionary fitness measure?

A) physical health of individuals

B) longevity

C) relative reproductive success within a population

D) population size and dispersion

56. Which of the following is most likely to decrease genetic variation?

A) directional selection

B) mutation

C) stabilizing selection

D) diversifying selection

57. In the soil, some convert nitrogen to a form that can be used by plants.

A) protists

B) animals

C) protozoans

D) prokaryotes

58. The evolved from small prokaryotes that established residence within other, larger prokaryotes.

A) vacuoles and lysosomes

B) Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum

C) centrioles and ribosomes

D) mitochondria and chloroplasts

59. What type of interspecific interaction is described by a small fish that eats parasites from mouths of larger fish?

A) mutualism

B) herbivory

C) parasitism

D) pollination

60. Antibiotic resistance is an example of what type of evolution?

A) Allopatric.

B) Microevolution.

C) Gene pool magnification

D) Macroevolution.

61. Biomedical researchers study species as disparate as worms, fruit flies, mice, zebrafish, or rhesus monkeys to understand our genes, and even our diseases. Why?

A) Because these species have many inherited features that are very similar to our own.

B) Because these species are all prokaryotes, and therefore their genes are 99.9% identical to one another

C) Because they make up an interconnected food web when bacteria are added

D) Because rhesus monkeys gave us the Rh+ factor when they bit our ancestors

62. Unique features of all vertebrates include the presence of a(n) .

A) scales

B) mammary glands

C) skull and backbone

D) amnion

63. Consider the following food chain: A barn owl eats a shrew. This shrew has eaten a grasshopper. The grasshopper has eaten the leaves of a clover plant and a maple tree. What organisms are on the first trophic level?

A) the barn owl

B) the shrew

C) the grasshopper

D) the barn owl, the shrew and the grasshopper

E) the clover plant and maple tree

64. Water moves from land to the atmosphere through .

A) precipitation only

B) transpiration only

C) transpiration and evaporation

D) evaporation and precipitation

65. According to this evolutionary tree, approximately how many years ago did humans and orangutans share a common ancestor?

A) 1 million years ago

B) 7 million years ago

C) 12 million years ago

D) 20 million years ago

66. Which of the following is not a result of global warming?

A) changes in the breeding seasons of some species.

B) decreasing sea levels.

C) melting permafrost.

D) shifts in the ranges of some species.

67. Which of the following are not examples of renewable resources?

A) Biofuels produced from plants or plant-derived by-products such as crop wastes.

B) Power supplied by human labor or livestock.

C) Fertilizers made from animal manure and composted plants.

D) Metal, cement, and glass, made using mined materials.

Please read the following scenario to answer the following two question(s).

Salmon eggs hatch in freshwater streams and, during the first year of their life, the young salmon migrate up to 1,000 km to the ocean. They spend varying amounts of time in the ocean (ranging up to five years), where they feed and grow, rapidly acquiring more than 95% of their biomass during this period. During the summer of their maturing year, they begin the long journey back to their home streams where they spawn. Although it is still uncertain how salmon navigate back to their spawning grounds, current hypotheses suggest that they have a highly developed sense of smell. At the spawning grounds, females use their tails to form a hollow cavity where they lay up to 8,000 eggs. The male fertilizes the eggs, and both adults typically die soon thereafter.

68. The physiological response that allows salmon to survive in fresh water, then in salt water, and then fresh water again is an example of .

A) a behavioral response

B) evolution

C) acclimation

D) an anatomical response

69. At different times in their lives, salmon can be found in all of the following

except .

A) a freshwater biome

B) a chaparral

C) the pelagic realm

D) an estuary

70. In an ideal, unlimited environment, what shape does a population’s growth curve most closely resemble?

A) S

B) J

C) ∧

D) ∪

71. According to the logistic growth model, what happens to a population when the size of the population reaches carrying capacity?

A) The growth rate remains unchanged.

B) The growth rate begins to decrease in size.

C) The population crashes.

D) The growth rate is zero.

72. Non-native species can have influence biological communities by .

A) preying upon native species

B) competing with native species for resources

C) reducing biodiversity

D) doing all of the above

73. species exerts a particularly strong influence on an ecosystem out of proportion to its size or abundance; its decline or extinction can cause a cascade of future extinctions within an ecosystem.

A) commensal

B) trophic

C) keystone

D) groundwater

74. An example of a mutualism, or +/+ relationship, is .

A) the relationship between corals and unicellular algae

B) cryptic coloration in frogs

C) herbivory

D) the relationship between Virginia’s warblers and orange-crowned warblers, which use some of the same resources

75. Populations of two coexisting species are both tertiary consumers in a community. What relationship may exist between these two organisms?

A) predation

B) mutualism

C) competition

D) commensalism

76. On average, only about of the available energy in one trophic level is incorporated and stored as calories in the bodies of the next level up.

A) 10%

B) one-third C) 50%

D) 75%

77. The primary goal of conservation biology is to by .

A) catalog species; protecting federally listed endangered species

B) maximize the land set aside for wildlife; countering pollution

C) integrate human culture back into nature; maintaining genetic diversity within species

D) counter the loss of biodiversity; sustaining entire ecosystems and habitats

Use the following information to answer the following three questions.

Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a unicellular eukaryotic organism belonging to the genus Plasmodium. These eukaryotic organisms are transmitted from one person to another by the female Anopheles mosquito when it feeds on human blood. Within humans, the Plasmodium spp. destroy red blood cells and, without effective treatment, serious infections can lead to death. Currently, more than 400 million people are afflicted with malaria and between 1 to 3 million people die from it each year. Historically, a chemical compound called quinine has been used in developing effective drugs against malaria. In its natural environment, quinine is produced by certain trees native to South America. This chemical is synthesized in the outer layer of tree trunks and acts as an herbivore deterrent.

78. Based on the relationship between Plasmodium spp. and humans, these organisms would be considered .

A) parasites

B) hosts

C) producers

D) carnivores

79. Humans, mosquitoes, and Plasmodium together would be considered a(n)


A) population

B) community

C) ecosystem

D) population and community

80. Despite being used for many years, quinine-based drugs have not led to the eradication of malaria and currently there are mosquitoes that are resistant to the compound. Which of the following were likely important in the development of this resistance to quinine?

A) natural selection

B) mutualism

C) interspecific competition

D) biological magnification


TERM or CONCEPT Answer Definition/Association
1. genetic drift A. DNA molecule with attached proteins
2. chromosome B. a haploid cell that combines with another haploid cell during fertilization
3. crossing over C. a specific portion of a chromosome that contains information for a particular inherited trait
4. gamete D. New species form in geographically isolated populations
5. gene E. an interaction during meiosis in which chromatids exchange segments; results in genetic recombination
6. germ cell F. a change in the gene pool of a population due to chance
7. sympatric speciation G. the process in which ribosomes synthesize proteins using the mRNA transcript
8. mitosis H. the synthesis of mRNA from a DNA template
9. translation I. the type of cell division which is used in asexual reproduction and tissue growth and repair
10. transcription J. the type of cell division responsible for gamete formation and sexual reproduction
11. allopatric speciation L. a type of cell whose primary function is the formation of gametes for sexual reproduction
12. meiosis M. New species form within populations in the same geographic area

MATCHING SECTION #1 (6 points)

MATCHING SECTION INSTRUCTIONS: Read all instructions carefully. Please answer all questions. Each question is worth 0.5 points. Type in the letter you select from the right column as the best answer on the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor.

TERM or CONCEPT Answer Definition/Association
1. microtubules A. contain enzymes for intracellular digestion
2. chloroplasts B. are primary cellular structures (or components) where proteins are assembled
3. Golgi bodies C. package cellular secretions for export
4. DNA molecules D. extract energy stored in carbohydrates; synthesize ATP; produce water and carbon dioxide
5. RNA molecules E. synthesize subunits that will be assembled into two part ribosomes in the cytoplasm
6. central vacuoles F. translate hereditary instructions into specific proteins
7. lysosomes G. increase cell surface area; store substances
8. mitochondria H. encode hereditary information
9. nucleoli I. help distribute chromosomes to the new cells during cell division
10. ribosomes J. convert light energy to chemical energy stored in the chemical bonds of glucose or starch


INSTRUCTIONS: Provide the best answer for the items below. Each item is worth three (3) points. Please answer all questions in this section. Type in your best answer on the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor.

1. You take a sample from a mysterious “blob” that has washed up on the shore of a nearby lake, and view the cells and their contents under a very high-resolution microscope. You can see that the cells are polygonal and you can identify the cell membrane, mitochondria, chloroplasts, the nucleus, and some Golgi bodies. You conclude that it must be a cell.

2. A resists changes in pH by accepting hydrogen ions from or donating hydrogen ions to solutions.

MATCHING SECTION #2 (5 points)

MATCHING SECTION INSTRUCTIONS: Read all instructions carefully. Please answer all questions. Each question is worth 0.5 points. Type in the letter you select from the right column as the best answer on the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor.

3. A dog gets many nutrients from its food including amino acids. What macromolecule can be built directly from amino acids?

4. selection can lead to a balance of two or more contrasting phenotypes in a population.

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