21. If placed in tap water, an animal cell will undergo lysis, whereas a plant cell will not. What accounts for this difference?
A) expulsion of water by the plant cell’s central vacuole
B) the relative impermeability of the plant cell membrane to water
C) the relative impermeability of the plant’s nuclear membrane to water
D) the relative inelasticity and strength of the plant cell wall
22. Which of the following is not a common feature shared by all metabolic pathways?
A) Each pathway contains multiple intermediate products, and there are small molecular differences between the intermediates.
B) Each pathway is regulated to ensure the optimal use of resources and to maintain the health of the cell.
C) Many pathways are universal among living organisms.
D) Each step within the pathway, or the conversion from one intermediate to the next, is catalyzed by a nucleic acid with a reactive R group.
Use the following information to answer questions 23-24 below.
A group of medical researchers recently investigated the effects of Drug X on lowering blood pressure in a group of hypertensive middle-aged men. The researchers did the following experiment and obtained the indicated results: One group of 150 men took a tablet containing Drug X for 3 weeks – 95 of these men decreased their blood pressure by at least 10% (three men from this group dropped out of the study). Another group of 150 men was given a tablet with no added Drug X for 3 weeks – 10 of these men decreased their blood pressure by at least 10% (two men from this group dropped out of the study).
23. Which of the following was the control group in this experiment?
A) the group of participants that received tablets containing Drug X
B) the group of participants that received tablets that did not contain Drug X
C) the number of participants in each group at the beginning of the experiment
D) the number of participants in each group at the end of the experiment
E) the amount of Drug X contained in the tablet
24. Which of the following is the most reasonable and accurate conclusion based on the results obtained in this experiment?
A) Drug X is good for hypertensive men
B) Drug X is good for both men and women
C) Hypertensive men receiving Drug X for 3 weeks may show a decrease in blood pressure
D) Hypertensive men receiving Drug X for 3 weeks may show an increase in blood pressure
E) Drug X has no effect on blood pressure
25. Plant cells .
A) do not need chloroplasts because their mitochondria meet their energy needs
B) have chloroplasts and mitochondria
C) use carbon dioxide but do not use oxygen
D) do not need mitochondria because their chloroplasts meet their energy needs
E) are prokaryotic
26. The ultimate source of the energy in food is .
A) the sun
E) lipids and nucleic acids
27. What compound directly provides energy for cellular work?
28. child is born with a rare disease in which mitochondria are missing from certain skeletal muscle cells. Physicians find that the muscle cells function. Not surprisingly, they also find that .
A) the muscles contain large amounts of lactic acid following even mild physical exercise
B) the muscles contain large amounts of carbon dioxide following even mild physical exercise
C) the muscles require extremely high levels of oxygen to function
D) the muscle cells cannot split glucose to pyruvic acid
29. The disease gonorrhea has become increasingly resistant to treatment with antibiotics. What is the most likely scientific explanation?
A) The gonorrhea bacteria learned to avoid antibiotics.
B) The gonorrhea bacteria changed their genes when they sensed antibiotics.
C) Antibiotic-sensitive gonorrhea bacteria died out, but antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea bacteria have flourished and persisted.
D) The antibiotic increased the mutation rate in the gonorrhea bacteria.
E) both b and d.
30. Which statement best describes the relationship between plants and animals on earth?
A) Plants produce O2 and sugars from CO2
B) Animals produce CO2 and H2O from sugars and O2
C) Plants produce O2 and sugars and animals produce CO2 and H2O
D) Animals produce O2 and sugars and plants produce CO2 and H2O
31. Think of the cell as a factory, in which the organelles are specialized sites of production. All cells have a power plant, the mitochondrion. Plant cells have an additional “reactor” for the production of usable energy. It is called the
A) Golgi body
B) rough endoplasmic reticulum
C) central vacuole
32. A researcher planted seeds from four types of quinoa (Types A, B, C, and D) in a greenhouse to determine which type of quinoa grew the tallest. The plants were grown for 10 days and measured. The results are shown below. Choose the data set that demonstrates that Type C quinoa grew the tallest. A) A = 30 cm, B = 21 cm, C= 15 cm, D= 12 cm.
B) A = 22 cm, B = 11 cm, C= 25 cm, D= 4 cm
C) A = 2 cm, B = 5 cm, C= 1 cm, D= 2 cm
D) A = 30 cm, B = 12 cm, C= 28 cm, D= 1 cm
E) A = 21 cm, B = 12 cm, C= 20 cm, D= 15 cm
33. replicated chromosome consists of two joined at the .
A) diploid genes; locus
B) homologous chromosomes; crossing over point
C) genomes: centrosome
D) sister chromatids; centromere