BIOLOGY

Midterm Review Questions:

1. What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? What components do all cells have in common?

2. List the organelles found in a eukaryotic cell and their functions.

3. Compare mitosis and meiosis. What is the purpose of mitosis? meiosis? which process produces exact copies?

4. Which process produces genetic diversity? describe the ways genetic diversity is produced during the process.

5. Which process has one duplication and two divisions?

6. Which process produces haploid gametes for sexual reproduction?

7. Humans have 46 chromosomes. Is this a haploid or diploid number?

8. How many X chromosomes does a human female possess?

9. Why are men more prone to X-linked traits?

10. What is the difference between phenotype and genotype?

11. Explain the difference between dominant and recessive; are dominant more commonly observed in nature?

12. Give examples of homozygous recessive alleles, homozygous dominant alleles and heterozygous alleles.

13. Explain the pH scale and what constitutes an acid/base/neutral. Chemically, what do acids and bases do? What does a buffer do?

14. Explain covalent versus ionic bonding. How do they differ? Give examples of each and explain how they differ with regard to electrons.

15. What are the monomers of starch? What are the monomers of nucleic acids? What are the monomers of proteins? How are the monomers joined to form polymers?

16. Discuss the qualities of water that make it unique and why hydrogen bonds are responsible.

17. What are the different types of lipids and what do they have in common?

18. Where do we find a plasma membrane?

19. What makes up the plasma membrane? list and discuss the components of the plasma membrane.

20. How do prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ with regard to their DNA?

21. Define haploid versus diploid. If the haploid number is 5 what is the diploid number?

22. What is a karyotype?

23. What is another word for Trisomy 21.

24. Discuss transcription and translation. What is happening in each process? Where do they occur?

25. If DNA codes for RNA what does RNA code for?

26. What is a codon?

27. Codons are translated into ___________?

28. What is the primary level of protein structure?

29. Do all proteins have quaternary structure?

30. How many segments of the genetic code translate to an amino acid? a start? a stop?

31. What are the three parts of a nucleotide?

32. Compare and contrast DNA and RNA in structure, sugar, function and bases.

33. What is semi-conservative replication?

34. If G-C-T-A-C-G-T-T-A is a DNA strand what is the complementary DNA strand?

35. For the same DNA strand list the RNA transcript and translate it using the genetic code

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