BIOLOGY

Tissues, Organs, and Homeostasis

Margaret E. Vorndam, M.S. Version 42-0131-00-01

Lab RepoRt assistant

This document is not meant to be a substitute for a formal laboratory report. The Lab Report Assistant is simply a summary of the experiment’s questions, diagrams if needed, and data tables that should be addressed in a formal lab report. The intent is to facilitate students’ writing of lab reports by providing this information in an editable file which can be sent to an instructor.

obseRvations

Data Table 1: Data Recorded from Homeostasis Exercise
Body

Temperature,

°F or °C

Heart Beats per Minute Rate of

Respiration

Inhalations per

Minute

Other

Observations

Before exercise,

T0 = 0 minutes

After exercise

T1 = 10 minutes

T2 = 15 minutes
T3 = 20 minutes
T4 = 25 minutes
T5 = 30 minutes

E x p e ri m e n t T i s s u e s , O r g an s , an d H O m e O s T a s i s

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Exercise 1: Homeostasis

ResuLts

A. Describe what changes you observed in the subject between the pre-exercise and the post- exercise states.

B. How long did it take for the subject’s measurements to return to the pre-exercise states?

C. Are these changes that you expected to happen?

D. If results are available from someone else’s trial or you are able to repeat the exercise with

a different subject, compare those results with yours. What differences do you find? How might

you explain these differences?

Questions

A. Describe what systems in the subject’s body actively participated in homeostatic changes to allow it to perform this exercise.

B. Exactly what kinds of activity did each system undertake to compensate for the subject’s exercise, and enable him/her to perform it?

C. Why do you believe the subject’s body made these adjustments?

D. What did you learn from this exercise?

Exercise 2: Epithelial Cells

ResuLts

A. What observations did you make about your skin when viewed under the hand lens? Were you able to locate the “slough” layer of cells? What is the purpose of this layer?

B. Why can you consider skin to be like hide on another animal?

C. When you viewed the microscope slides, what similarities did you observe between the prepared slide and the wet-mount slide?

D. How were the two slides different?

E. Where in the body will you find each type of epithelial cell that you observe on the prepared slide? Hint: Epithelial cells that contain cilia tend to be found where absorption is important and where “flushing” to remove foreign objects is necessary.

F. Why are mouth lining scrapings used for DNA analysis in forensic testing?

G. How does your epidermal layer differ from that of other animals such as dogs and cats? How is it the same?

Exercise 3: Neurological Function

Questions

A. What is the purpose of nerve cells?

B. How does their function differ from that of the endocrine system?

C. What type of nerve cell is represented in the prepared slide smear? Motor, sensory or interneuron? How do you know?

D. Where would you expect to find the most nerve tissue in your body? Why?

E. Where might you find the least amount of nerve tissue? Why?

Exercise 4: Muscular System

ResuLts

A. Describe the characteristics of each type of muscle. How are they the same? How are they different? Why are they different?

B. Does the wet mount of the beef bone muscle tissue appear similar to any of the prepared slide muscles? Which one? Why is it similar to this type of muscle? What is its function?

A. What type of muscle is represented by:

a. A beef roast – b. A beef heart –

c. A beef tongue –

d. Tripe –

e. Chicken drumstick – f. Fish fillet –

B. Why do muscle tissue types vary in cell makeup?

Exercise 5: The Skeletal System

ResuLts

A. Where would you find a beef “knucklebone” in a cow’s body? What structure is analogous in a human body?

B. What are the roles of the various structures found in bone?

C. How does the prepared slide of bone differ from the photo of the osteoporitic bone?

Questions

A. Why is bone health so critical?

B. What factors govern bone health?

C. Older people, particularly women that are post-menopausal, suffer from bone loss. What advice could you give a senior person to help her or him maintain the health of their bones as they age?

Exercise 6: Summary Activity

ResuLts

A. In the diagram, which body systems are absolutely essential for a human to live?

B. Are there any system(s) we can lack and still survive without their operation?

C. Are there system(s) that humans have that are NOT portrayed in the diagram above? What are their functions? Are they necessary for life?

100 © H a nds-On L a bs, I n c . w w w . L a b P a q . c o m

D. Which system(s) could be considered to be the body’s “communication” system(s)?

E. Which systems could be considered to be the body’s “transportation” system(s)?

Questions

A. How does the body thermoregulate? What specific biochemical mechanisms are involved?

B. What specific waste products are produced by the body and how are they removed?

C. How do habits such as smoking and heavy drinking affect the body? Why are the effects reversible if the habit stops?

D. Choose one system to investigate further. Go to Medline Plus online at http://www.nlm.nih. gov/medlineplus/healthtopics.html and locate the system in their directory. Explore one disorder of this system that can occur. Outline its symptoms, its effect, and what is currently known about treatment. How does this disorder impact homeostasis in the victim? (NOTE: If a secondary web link does not work, choose another system/topic.) Place your report here:

LaboRatoRy summaRy

What have you learned from doing this laboratory that you did not know before you began it?

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