EHS Mod 3 slp
In many developing countries, diseases from inadequate water supply and water contamination are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Write a 2 page paper in which you do the following:
1) Describe how water quality is linked to public health, in general.
2) Compare the concerns with water quality and water quantity in the United States with concerns in a typical developing country.
3) Illustrate your paper with a description of water quality and quantity issues of a given developing country or a community in a developing country.
EHS Mod4 case
Write a 2 page paper in which you respond to the following two questions:
Housing and Habitability
Question 1: You are an environmental health inspector asked to investigate problems at a local low-income and poorly maintained apartment complex. There is lead-based paint peeling from the walls, and mold growing on the walls. Summarize the health hazards associated with lead and mold in this particular setting, and describe what may be done to control these two public health problems. Keep in mind the limitations and challenges a low-income community may face, living in poorly maintained housing.
Please be sure to support your position with evidence from the literature.
Question 2: One of your goals is to protect the health of swimmers at a local recreational pool. Discuss two methods that have been used to treat swimming pool water, ozonation and chlorination. Then, identify the method or combination of methods that would provide the best protection to swimmers and the public’s health.
ESH Mod4 slp
It is not uncommon for sewage and urban runoff to reach the coastline in crowded urban areas. To protect the health of swimmers from fecal contamination at beaches, public health officials routinely monitor the coastal waters for indicator organisms (bacteria), such as fecal Coliform and Enterococcus. These organisms are naturally found in the intestines of warm blooded organisms, and so when they are detected in beach water it means that there is probably fecal contamination. While the indicators used to monitor beaches are bacteria, the actual disease causing organisms (called “pathogens”) are often viruses or even parasites.
In this assignment, you are an environmental health inspector charged with the responsibility to sample beach water, after a storm, to inform the public, and particularly surfers. Also, you will need to make decisions about whether to close the beach or not. Write a 2-3 page paper in which you do the following:
1. Describe the types of illnesses that can be caused by contaminated recreational beach waters.
2. Identify the challenges in monitoring and managing beach waters to protect the public, and particularly surfers, in a timely manner (hint: discuss the timeliness of water test results).
3. Describe the types of warning information that you would make available to the public regarding the safety of swimming at the beach. Base your answer on the general practices of public health departments.
Epidemiology mod3 case
Please write a descriptive epidemiological analysis of a disease or health condition of your choice. Describe the basic patterns of this health condition by person, place, and time. Use the online library or the internet to research your health condition. Use the Descriptive Epidemiology Information in the Module home page.
Epidemiology mod3 slp
After developing a case definition, the epidemiologists used a computer software program to analyze the questionnaires (which were completed by the children in the sixth grade classes).
Confirmed Case: Salmonella isolated from stool specimen.
Suspect Case: Individual with diarrhea and fever OR diarrhea and vomiting.
Non-Case: Individual who is not a “confirmed” or “suspect” case.
Click here to view the results of their descriptive analysis.
The school principal is asking you some questions regarding the results of the outbreak analysis. Respond to her questions below.
1.) How many individuals had a stool specimen that were positive for Salmonella?
2.) Describe the epidemic curve. What did it indicate? Do you think it was a common source or propagated epidemic? Explain.
3.) On average, how many hours elapsed between when students were exposed and when they got sick?
For your understanding, you need to review the case definition and then examine the frequency of cases. For common sources, incubation period and range, please review the information in the module homepage.
Epidemiology mod4 case
You have just finished a health education in-service to the community on the hazards of smoking. A representative of the tobacco industry is present at your in-service and makes the following comment regarding your presentation: “You gave a nice presentation. However, I disagree with you that smoking can cause lung cancer. There is still not enough evidence to indicate that smoking can cause cancer.”
Your task is as follows:
1. Respond to his statement and indicate why there is a cause-effect relationship between smoking and lung cancer using thefive criteria for causality.
2. What is your interpretation of the evidence on how smoking affects lung cancer?
WHAT IS A CAUSE-EFFECT RELATIONSHIP?
To determine whether thereis a cause-effect relationship, the following criteria needs to be evaluated:
1. STRENGTH OF ASSOCIATION
What is the relative risk or odds ratio for the exposure and the disease? A larger ratio means that the exposure more likely caused the disease. For example,if a study that you found on the internet states that individuals who smoked were 10 times more likely to develop lung cancer than individuals who did not, and they are referring to has an odds ratio or relative risk that is equal to 10. Recall that an odds ratio or relative risk that is equal to one means there is no difference.
2. DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIP
According to studies (such as those on the internet), does increasing levels of exposure to the factor (such as smoking) result in a corresponding rise in disease? If there is a corresponding rise in occurrence of disease with increasing levels of exposure to a factor, it is more likely that there is a cause-effect relationship?
3. CONSISTENCY OF ASSOCIATION
Has there been many studies indicating that there is an association between the exposure and the disease? If the same association is found using different study designs, different populations, and different settings, there is a consistency of association and it is more likely that there is a cause-effect relationship.
4. TEMPORALLY CORRECT ASSOCIATION
Does the exposure occur before the onset of disease? The exposure must precede onset of illness.
5. BIOLOGICAL PLAUSIBILITY
Does the association between the exposure and the disease make sense? Why? The association between the exposure and the disease must be plausible in terms of current knowledge about the factor and the disease.
Epidemiology mod4 slp
Using a computer software program, the epidemiologists have analyzed the food history data from the questionnaires and have constructed the following attack rate table.
ATTACK RATE TABLE
|FOOD ITEMS||PERSONS WHO ATE SPECIFIED FOOD||PERSONS WHO DID NOT EAT SPECIFIED FOOD||95% Confidence Interval|
|Ill||Not Ill||Total||Attack Rate||Ill||Not Ill||Total||Attack Rate|
|Chicken||36||30||66||55%||4||30||34||12%||1.2 – 17.7|
|Potato Salad||32||40||72||44%||8||20||28||29%||0.6 – 3.9|
|Potato Chips||20||4||24||83%||20||56||76||26%||1.8 – 5.7|
|Ice Cream||24||0||24||100%||16||60||76||21%||2.6 – 8.8|
|Pie||32||4||36||89%||8||56||64||13%||2.8 – 18.0|
|Pepsi||36||40||76||47%||4||20||24||17%||0.8 – 10.5|
· Calculate the relative risk for each of the food items.
· Identify the food items that have a statistically significant confidence interval.
· Identify the food item that is the most likely source of transmission. Explain.
To identify the contaminated food item you need to identify the food items that have significant confidence intervals and pick the food with the highest relative risk. For more information, refer to “Interpretation of Odds Ratios and Relative Risk” on the Module homepage.