BIOLOGY

Final Exam: There are 4 questions each with multiple parts. Each question is worth 25 points so ensure that you answer each part you are given. Please remember that this is worth 25 points for each question. Consider that point when answering your questions and answer with enough detail to warrant the 25 points.

This exam was emailed to students on Monday, May 6, 2013. You must return this by midnight on Saturday, May 11, 2013 by 11:59 pm. There will be no exceptions given and you cannot receive credit for a take home exam handed in late. (Therefore if this is not returned to me after 12 am on May 12, you receive a ZERO for your final exam grade.)

1. a. Consider the following types of substitution mutations. Make a table describing the DNA mutation, the effects on the protein and the possible effects on the cell:

transition, transversion, missense, nonsense, neutral, silent and frameshift

b. Consider a protein that has the following sequence of amino acid. This is the wild type protein sequence.

Met – Thr – Cys – His – Ser – Ser …

Mutations of the DNA have led to the following protein sequences. In each case, provide an explanation of a mutation or mutations that are most likely to have could have occurred. Discuss how these mutations will effect the cell.

a. Met – Thr – Ser – His – Ser – Ser …

b. Met – Thr

c. Met – Thr – Leu– Ser – Phe – Phe ……

c. Codons for the same amino acid tend to differ only by the third base position. Why?

2. In class, we discussed the initiation of DNA replication, mRNA transcription and protein

translation.

a. Compare and contrast the initiation of these three processes.

b. Discuss how the cell and its environment are involved in the regulation.

c. Discuss why the cell would employ the use of different promoters on adjacent genes.

3. Consider the idea of evolution/adaptation. Explain how the concept of central dogma (DNA to RNA to Protein) is related.

4. This semester we have discussed genotypes yielding an expected phenotype. Write a summary of your understanding of how the genotype produces a phenotype. In your answer, be sure to include how environment plays a role.

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