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BIOL180: Introduction to Biology with Lab – The Outline
Student Name and Section Number
Assignment 2 Outline: APUS oak (Americanus quercus)
A. Common and scientific names
1. Common names: APUS oak tree, APUS oak.
2. Scientific Name: Americanus quercus (Arbor Day Foundation, 2016).
B. Observed where?
1. This tree is commonly found in Charles Town, West Virginia where I
2. I have observed this organism at the local park, growing along
roadsides and in the yards of personal residences near my home.
3. The geographic range extends across northeastern North America,
Canada and into West Virginia.
4. It can be found as far west and north as Idaho.
C. Why I chose this organism?
1. This tree makes a beautiful canopy.
2. It is considered an ornamental tree which people choose to plant in
their residential yards for shade, aesthetics and longevity.
3. It is also a source of lumber since it is a hardwood and sought after
due to its durability.
4. I moved to this location recently and wanted to learn more about the
5. I’m considering landscaping options so learning more about the APUS
oak may help me to decide if this tree is a good choice to plant in my
Oak Leaf and Acorns
(Image credit: Pixabay, Acorn Oak Leaf, 2019)
A. Physical Description
1. Leaves: 2-6” long, 5 to 11 lobes with interspersed sinuses.
2. Twigs: Red to white with rounded buds.
3. Fruit: 0.5 to 1” acorns which are green to dark brown and bitter-
4. Bark: Young trees will have a dark colored bark.
a. as tree ages, bark may tinge red.
Make sure to
title and cite the
source of the
image you use.
b. fully mature tree will develop bark fissures (20-20 Site,
5. Flowers: Female and male flowers form on separate branches
a. female 3-lobed stigma forms on the oak twig.
b. male catkins or aments, form as yellow, sting-like structures
(Oak Flowers, n.d.).
6. Size: Can reach up to 100 feet in height with a canopy of 150 feet in
B. Life Cycle and Reproduction
1. Life Cycle
a. Follows the life cycle of a hardwood tree.
b. The acorn prefers cold, wet conditions for germination.
1) optimum temperature is 34º F for 90% acorn
c. The seedling can grow in shade but grows best in full sun.
d. The sapling stage exhibits steady growth until full canopy is
achieved (Godman and Mattson, 1980).
e. Sexual maturity arrives when the ability to produce flowers
occurs at approximately 25 years.
f. Can live between 200 to 400 years.
a. Flowers bloom between March to May.
b. Trees are monoecious.
1) The female and male flowers are present on the
same tree but located on different parts of branches.
c. Pollination of the female flowers occurs primarily by wind.
3. Acorns mature late in summer and fall from trees (Oak Flowers, n.d.).
C. The leaf structure and function
a. The leaves may have from 5 to 11 lobes.
b. Leaves have a primary midrib and radial veins.
c. The base of the leaf (margin) follows up to the first lobe
interspersed with sinuses.
d. The petiole attaches the leaf to the branch.
e. APUS oak leaves attach alternate on branches.
a. Leaves function to produce food for the tree.
b. Leaves convert energy from sunlight into complex
molecules via photosynthesis.
c. Chlorophyll present in leaves captures photons.
d. A series of reactions inside plant cell chloroplasts produces
water, oxygen and carbohydrates (Bassow and Bazzaz,
D. Energy Ecology
1. Photosynthesis Think about how
a. APUS oak is a primary producer.
b. It obtains its energy via photosynthesis.
c. Chloroplasts inside plant cell leaves conduct photosynthesis
to produce carbohydrates, a form of stored energy.
2. APUS oak circulates nutrients via the conductive xylem and phloem.
a. The xylem conducts water upwards from the roots.
3. The phloem uses turgor pressure to transport sugar molecules to plant
tissues (Archer & Barber, 2004; Photosynthesis, 2018).
a. The natural environment of the APUS oak is outdoors in
b. Additional abiotic factors include:
1) Well drained soils.
2) Sandy loam and nutrient rich.
4) Stable, neutral pH.
a. Some common pests of the APUS oak include defoliators,
caterpillars and oakworms.
b. Major leaf diseases are the result of fungi.
1) Oak Mildew can cause significant damage.
2) Occurs in high humidity conditions.
abiotic and biotic
factors of your
3) Generally, oak mildew is not an issue in healthy oak
trees (Imperial College, 2016).
A. The APUS oak tree (Americanus quercus) is commonly found in Charles Town,
WV but can also be found across much of North American and into Canada.
B. APUS oak is a hardwood tree that matures in 25 years, can grow 100 feet tall and
live for hundreds of years.
C. The leaves of the APUS oak tree are multi-lobed, attach alternate to branches and
as primary producers, conduct photosynthesis.
D. Acorns are produced in the late fall from mature APUS oak trees that flower
between March to May that are primarily wind pollinated.
E. The APUS oak tree leaves conduct photosynthesis which produces the trees
F. The APUS oak tree prefers a temperate climate, sandy loam, neutral pH and well-
drained soil for optimal growth and health.
G. The APUS oak tree is one of the largest trees, a hardwood and can live hundreds
of years which make it a unique organism.
Ensure that all
references are listed
on the Reference
page, and vice versa. Check your
20-20 Site. (2012). See It Clearly. Oak Tree. Retrieved from: http://www.2020site.org/trees/oak-
Arbor Day Foundation. (2016). Oak Trees- There’s an Oak Tree Where You Live. The Oak Tree
Family. Types of Oak Trees. Retrieved from:
Archer, M., & Barber, J. (2004). Molecular to global photosynthesis. River Edge, NJ: Imperial
Bassow, S.L., and Bazzaz, F.A. (1998). “How Environmental Conditions Affect Canopy Leaf-
Level Photosynthesis in Four Deciduous Tree Species.” Ecology 79.8 (1998): 2660–
Common Trees of Pennsylvania. (n.d.). Department of Conservation and Natural Resources
Bureau of Forestry. Retrieved from:
Godman, R. M. and Mattson, G.A. (1980). Low Temperatures Optimum For Field Germination
of Northern Red Oak. USDA. Tree Planters Notes. [pdf]. Retrieved from: https://rnfr.net
Imperial College. (2016). Oak Pests and Disease. Oak Mildew. Retrieved from:
Use a minimum of
five credible and
and list in APA
Oak Flowers. (n.d.). Backyard Nature Home. Oak Flowers. Retrieved from:
Photosynthesis and Respiration. (2018). University of California. Retrieved from:
Pixabay. (2019). Acorn Oak Leaf, Image File. Retrieved from: https://pixabay.com/en/acorn-