Use this sample as a guide to help you format your outline.

BIOL180: Introduction to Biology with Lab – The Outline

Student Name and Section Number

Assignment 2 Outline: APUS oak (Americanus quercus)

I. Introduction

A. Common and scientific names

1. Common names: APUS oak tree, APUS oak.

2. Scientific Name: Americanus quercus (Arbor Day Foundation, 2016).

B. Observed where?

1. This tree is commonly found in Charles Town, West Virginia where I

currently reside.

2. I have observed this organism at the local park, growing along

roadsides and in the yards of personal residences near my home.

3. The geographic range extends across northeastern North America,

Canada and into West Virginia.

4. It can be found as far west and north as Idaho.

C. Why I chose this organism?

1. This tree makes a beautiful canopy.

2. It is considered an ornamental tree which people choose to plant in

their residential yards for shade, aesthetics and longevity.

Choose a

species you

can observe

in person.

Include your






3. It is also a source of lumber since it is a hardwood and sought after

due to its durability.

4. I moved to this location recently and wanted to learn more about the

local flora.

5. I’m considering landscaping options so learning more about the APUS

oak may help me to decide if this tree is a good choice to plant in my


D. Image

Oak Leaf and Acorns

(Image credit: Pixabay, Acorn Oak Leaf, 2019)

II. Body

A. Physical Description

1. Leaves: 2-6” long, 5 to 11 lobes with interspersed sinuses.

2. Twigs: Red to white with rounded buds.

3. Fruit: 0.5 to 1” acorns which are green to dark brown and bitter-


4. Bark: Young trees will have a dark colored bark.

a. as tree ages, bark may tinge red.

Make sure to

title and cite the

source of the

image you use.

b. fully mature tree will develop bark fissures (20-20 Site,


5. Flowers: Female and male flowers form on separate branches

a. female 3-lobed stigma forms on the oak twig.

b. male catkins or aments, form as yellow, sting-like structures

(Oak Flowers, n.d.).

6. Size: Can reach up to 100 feet in height with a canopy of 150 feet in


B. Life Cycle and Reproduction

1. Life Cycle

a. Follows the life cycle of a hardwood tree.

b. The acorn prefers cold, wet conditions for germination.

1) optimum temperature is 34º F for 90% acorn


c. The seedling can grow in shade but grows best in full sun.

d. The sapling stage exhibits steady growth until full canopy is

achieved (Godman and Mattson, 1980).

e. Sexual maturity arrives when the ability to produce flowers

occurs at approximately 25 years.

f. Can live between 200 to 400 years.

2. Reproduction

a. Flowers bloom between March to May.

b. Trees are monoecious.

Use credible

and scholarly

sources to

support your


1) The female and male flowers are present on the

same tree but located on different parts of branches.

c. Pollination of the female flowers occurs primarily by wind.

3. Acorns mature late in summer and fall from trees (Oak Flowers, n.d.).

C. The leaf structure and function

1. Anatomy

a. The leaves may have from 5 to 11 lobes.

b. Leaves have a primary midrib and radial veins.

c. The base of the leaf (margin) follows up to the first lobe

interspersed with sinuses.

d. The petiole attaches the leaf to the branch.

e. APUS oak leaves attach alternate on branches.

2. Physiology

a. Leaves function to produce food for the tree.

b. Leaves convert energy from sunlight into complex

molecules via photosynthesis.

c. Chlorophyll present in leaves captures photons.

d. A series of reactions inside plant cell chloroplasts produces

water, oxygen and carbohydrates (Bassow and Bazzaz,


D. Energy Ecology

1. Photosynthesis Think about how

your organism

obtains its


Address the

anatomy and


a. APUS oak is a primary producer.

b. It obtains its energy via photosynthesis.

c. Chloroplasts inside plant cell leaves conduct photosynthesis

to produce carbohydrates, a form of stored energy.

2. APUS oak circulates nutrients via the conductive xylem and phloem.

a. The xylem conducts water upwards from the roots.

3. The phloem uses turgor pressure to transport sugar molecules to plant

tissues (Archer & Barber, 2004; Photosynthesis, 2018).

E. Habitat

1. Abiotic

a. The natural environment of the APUS oak is outdoors in

temperate climates.

b. Additional abiotic factors include:

1) Well drained soils.

2) Sandy loam and nutrient rich.

3) Full-sun.

4) Stable, neutral pH.

2. Biotic

a. Some common pests of the APUS oak include defoliators,

caterpillars and oakworms.

b. Major leaf diseases are the result of fungi.

1) Oak Mildew can cause significant damage.

2) Occurs in high humidity conditions.

Address the

abiotic and biotic

factors of your



3) Generally, oak mildew is not an issue in healthy oak

trees (Imperial College, 2016).

III. Conclusions

A. The APUS oak tree (Americanus quercus) is commonly found in Charles Town,

WV but can also be found across much of North American and into Canada.

B. APUS oak is a hardwood tree that matures in 25 years, can grow 100 feet tall and

live for hundreds of years.

C. The leaves of the APUS oak tree are multi-lobed, attach alternate to branches and

as primary producers, conduct photosynthesis.

D. Acorns are produced in the late fall from mature APUS oak trees that flower

between March to May that are primarily wind pollinated.

E. The APUS oak tree leaves conduct photosynthesis which produces the trees


F. The APUS oak tree prefers a temperate climate, sandy loam, neutral pH and well-

drained soil for optimal growth and health.

G. The APUS oak tree is one of the largest trees, a hardwood and can live hundreds

of years which make it a unique organism.

Ensure that all

internal citation

references are listed

on the Reference

page, and vice versa. Check your


grammar, and



20-20 Site. (2012). See It Clearly. Oak Tree. Retrieved from:


Arbor Day Foundation. (2016). Oak Trees- There’s an Oak Tree Where You Live. The Oak Tree

Family. Types of Oak Trees. Retrieved from:

Archer, M., & Barber, J. (2004). Molecular to global photosynthesis. River Edge, NJ: Imperial

College Press.

Bassow, S.L., and Bazzaz, F.A. (1998). “How Environmental Conditions Affect Canopy Leaf-

Level Photosynthesis in Four Deciduous Tree Species.” Ecology 79.8 (1998): 2660–

2675. Web.

Common Trees of Pennsylvania. (n.d.). Department of Conservation and Natural Resources

Bureau of Forestry. Retrieved from:

Godman, R. M. and Mattson, G.A. (1980). Low Temperatures Optimum For Field Germination

of Northern Red Oak. USDA. Tree Planters Notes. [pdf]. Retrieved from:

Imperial College. (2016). Oak Pests and Disease. Oak Mildew. Retrieved from:

Use a minimum of

five credible and

scholarly references

and list in APA


Oak Flowers. (n.d.). Backyard Nature Home. Oak Flowers. Retrieved from:

Photosynthesis and Respiration. (2018). University of California. Retrieved from:


Pixabay. (2019). Acorn Oak Leaf, Image File. Retrieved from:


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