BIOLOGY

What effect would each of the following have on synaptic transmission? a) Administering a drug which inactivates acetylcholinesterase b) Cutting the axon of the postsynaptic cell c) Administering a drug which binds to the norepinephrine recepter but doesn’t cause the activation of the associated G-protein

1. Consider the following information. Chimpanzees have a tibia (shin bone), whose upper end is “T” shaped, as it does not have to support their entire body weight. The “T” shaped tibia is an ancestral characteristic shared by most primates. Humans and members of the genus Australopithecus, a fossil primate, have a “Y” shape to the upper tibia, capable of supporting the full body weight, and evidence of bidpedalism. The “Y” shaped tibia is a recent evolutionary adaptation, or a derived trait. Additionally, Australopithecusshares an ancestral small cranium with chimps and gorillas, while humans have a derived large cranium. You design a phylogenetic tree based on the information describe above. What type of approach have you employed in your classification scheme?

a) Traditional approach.

b) Cladistic approach.

2. A hookworm is an intestinal worm that attaches to the lining of the intestine of its host and sucks body fluids. What term best describes the symbiotic relationship between the hookworm and its host?

a) Mutualism.

b) Commensalism.

c) Parasitism.

3. The purpose of the science of classification is to :

a) Establish evolutionary relationships between organisms.

b) Organize organisms according to similarities and differences.

4. Look at the classification scheme below. It shows that groups N and O have G as a common ancestor. What term best describes the relationship between N, O, and G?

a) They form a monophyletic group.

b) They form a polyphyletic group dan

5. Who is considered the “father” of classification?

a) Darwin.

b) Watson.

c) Linnaeus.

d) Lamark.

e) Cuvier.

6. Which choice lists the Linnaean taxons in the correct order from least specific to most specific?

a) Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species.

b) Kingdom, genus, phylum, class, order, family , species.

c) Kingdom, phylum, order, class, family, genus, species.

d) Kingdom, phylum, class, family, order, genus, species.

7. The red fox is classified in the following taxons (listed in no particular order): Kingdom Metazoa, Class Mammalia, Family Canidae, Genus Vulpes, Phylum Chordata, Order Carnivora, Species vulpes. What is the scientific name of the red fox?

a) Canidae Chordata.

b) Canis lupus.

c) Vulpes vulpes.

d) Carnivora vulpes.

e) Chordata Chordata.

8. Prokaryotic organisms are not found in which Domain?

a) Eubacteria.

b) Archaea.

c) Eukarya.

9. Rod shaped bacteria are called:

a) Bacilli.

b) Spirilla.

c) Streptococci.

d) Vibrio.

10. Which Eubacteria have a thick layer of peptidoglycans in their cell wall?

a) Gram positive bacteria.

b) Gram negative bacteria.

11. The methane producing prokaryotes that live in your intestines and are responsible for flatulence belong to which Domain?

a) Eubacteria.

b) Archaea.

c) Eukarya.

12. Which characteristic is not true of the Archaea?

a) All members of the Archaea are prokaryotes.

b) They have plasma membrane phospholipids that are identical to the Eubacteria.

c) Many are extremeophiles that tolerate hostile environments.

d) They are more closely related to Eukarya than they are to Eubacteria.

13. What term best describes the following organism: the so-called blue-green algae, they are photosynthetic bacteria; producing oxygen, they contain sheets of plasma membranes that contain photosystems; they utilize chlorophyll-a; just like plants; but contain phycolibin pigments that are not found in plant chloroplasts; form heterocysts that are nitrogen fixing; form akinetes (spores); and heterocysts (N-fixing cells); some have separation discs (hormonogonia) that cause filaments to fragment (dispersal); Prochloronta a subclade that is ancestral to plant chloroplasts?

a) Methanogen.

b) Spirochaeta.

c) Enteric bacteria.

d) Extreme halophile.

e) Cyanobacteria.

14. What statement is not true of viruses?

a) They have a capsid of protein and core of DNA or RNA.

b) An infected cell replicates viruses and is killed when it does so.

c) Viruses readily mutate which is why we get colds and flu so frequently.

d) Viruses are considered organisms with all the characteristics of life associated with prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.

e) Mark e if all statements are true.

15. What statement is true of prions?

a) Prions are produced by viruses.

b) Prion diseases can be prevented by cooking your meat.

c) Prions are abnormally shaped proteins that cause spongiform encephalopathies.

d) There are no prion diseases of humans, although there are several examples in animals.

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