What function do enzymes perform?
- Increase substrate concentration
- Increase the temperature
- Increase the activation energy required for a reaction to occur
- Decrease the activation energy required for a reaction to occur
28. The most important aspect of cellular respiration is that ___________________
- It is the process that occurs only in animal cells
- It is the process that utilizes fat as its primary energy source
- It is the process that enables living organisms to utilize the energy stored in glucose
- It is the only cellular process that yields ATP
29. The statement best describes the relationship between plants and animals on earth is
- Plants produce O2 and sugars from CO2
- Animals produce CO2 and H2O from sugars and O2
- Plants produce O2 and sugars and animals produce CO2 and H2O
- Animals produce O2 and sugars and plants produce CO2 and H2O
30. What is the function of the ribosome?
- RNA duplication
- Protein synthesis
31. What is the function of the lysosome?
- Prokaryotic digestion
- Eukaryotic digestion
- Prokaryotic mobility
- Eukaryotic mobility
32. In what stage of the cell cycle is genetic content replicated?
33. How many chromatids comprise a duplicated chromosome?
34. Which of the following could not be a sequence of RNA?
35. The product of meiosis includes which of the following?
- Haploid cells
- Genetically unique cells
- Four daughter cells
- All of the above
- A. and C. only
36. Often referred to as the Central Dogma, identify the traditional sequence of protein synthesis.
37. In humans, the allele for dimples (D) is dominant. The allele for not having dimples (d) is recessive. If a woman (DD) and a man (Dd) have four children, how many of the children will not have dimples?
38. Which of the following variations could be subject to natural selection?
- A dog with short legs due to malnutrition is able to crawl into holes better than his litter mates.
- A tree is not infested by a ground-dwelloing beetle when the homeowener cuts the lower branches.
- A hyena is born with a spotted fur pattern that allows it to hide in the grass better than his litter mates.
- A pigeon learns that’s when its keeper comes near, it will be fed.
- All of these variations may be acted on by natural selection.
39. What do plants and animals have in common?
- They are both heterotrophic
- They are both autotrophic
- They are both prokaryotic
- They are both eukaryotic
- They are both hydrophobic
40. Which of the following is not a characteristic of fungi?
- Cells have cell walls
- Include single-celled and filamentous forms
- Can use a wide variety of nutrient
41. Microevolution is defined as:
- Changes in population size
- Changes in the frequency of alleles in the gene pool
- Changes in the composition of the population
- Emergence of new species
- Changes in community size
42. A zorse is the offspring produced through interbreeding between a horse and a zebra. Zorses are often preferred for riding because of their physical shape, but they are sterile. According to Linnaean taxonomy, are zebras and horses classified in the same species?
- Not enough information to determine
43. Red rose color is incompletely dominant over white rose color. If a red rose is crossed with a pink rose, what percentage of the offspring will be pink?
44. Honey bees engage in entomophily, pollination through pollen distribution, as part of the process to produce honey. What is entomophily an example of?
45. Themajority of climate scientists suggest that the current change in climate is caused predominantly by ________.
- An enhancement of the greenhouse effect
- A decreased reliance on fossil fuels for energy
- A thinning of the ozone layer
- A melting of the polar ice caps
- An increase in solar radiation
46. Which of the following is not an expected effect of global climate change?
- A rise in the sea levels
- Flooding of coastal cities
- Decrease in the size of glaciers and ice sheets
- Increase in the size of glacier and ice sheets
- More extreme weather
47. If a wolf eats a rodent which ate a small insect which ate a plant, the wolf would be a(n)
- Primary producer
- Primary consumer
- Secondary consumer
- Tertiary consumer
48. The organisms that represent the different species within an ecosystem that interact in various ways, comprise a _______________
- Trophic level
49. Inheritable mutations, which may allow a population to evolve, are produced
- As a response to selection pressure
- By chance
- By natural selection
- As a response to environmental pressure
- By artificial selection
50. The ability of fireflies and angler fish to produce light is an example of convergent evolution. What can you conclude about these two animals based on this information?
- They share a recent common ancestor
- The ability to produce light is an ancient trait
- They are found in the same location
- They are both adapted to environments which are low in light
- All of the above
II. Matching of definitions and terms. Please place the correct number in front of each definition. (1 point each = 10 points):
____ DNA with attached proteins
____ A haploid cell that combines with another haploid cell during fertilization
____ Converts light energy to chemical energy stored in the chemical bonds of glucose or
____ A specific portion of a chromosome that contains information for a particular inherited
____ An interaction during meiosis in which chromatids exchange segments; it results in genetic
____ Nucleotide that drives most energy-requiring metabolic reaction
____ Extracts energy stored in carbohydrates; synthesizes ATP; produces water and carbon
____ The process in which ribosomes synthesize proteins using the mRNA transcript
____ The synthesis of mRNA from a DNA template
____ Are primary cellular structures (or components) where proteins are assembled
3. crossing over
6. DNA molecules
8. germ cell
10. central vacuoles
18. Golgi bodies
19. RNA molecules
III. True-False questions. (1 point each = 5 points):
1. Diffusion will occur, if a concentration gradient exists.
2. When a founder population has a small gene pool, evolutionary change is more likely to be rapid than if the founder population has a large gene pool.
3. Stabilizing selection is a pattern of natural selection that favors an average, not extreme, expression of a trait.
4. Once an adaptive feature appears, it remains in all the descendant unless the species becomes extinct.
5. Humans are more likely to be infected by viruses after the viruses had a chance to multiply outside the body on surfaces touched by infected people.