Biology

A. Cumulative Writing: Copy/paste (and revise if needed) the following sections from the Module 6 individual assignment. Use this information to help you complete the practical reasoning process.

Definition of Health & Wellbeing

Problem

Alternative Perspectives

Ecological Systems

Life Course Model 

Systems of Action

 

Include NEW Headings for Practical Reasoning – Use the information from your Module 6 assignment to apply the practical reasoning process. Headings to be included:

B. Practical Reasoning Process:

(1) Problem Question – Write the problem in the form of a question. For example:

· What should be done to help the brother assume responsibility for his own actions?

· What should be done to about sharing parenting responsibilities?

· What should be done about . . . . . .?

(2) Valued-End: What is the valued end or ultimate goal in relationship to this problem? (Review your definition of health and wellbeing and problem description). (approximately 1-3 sentences)

(3) Consequences Related to the Problem – What will happen if the problem is resolved? Not resolved? (approximately 1-3 sentences)

(4) Context of the Problem: Briefly describe the context of the problem (4-5 bullets) (refer to sections on alternative perspectives and ecological systems).

(5) Alternative Strategies and Consequences:

– Copy/paste (and revise if needed) at least 4-5 actions (refer to your section on Systems of Action — should include technical, communicative and critical actions).

– Identify at least one positive (or negative) consequence of each action (approximately 1-2 sentences for each action). 

(6)  Judgment: Considering the components of the practical reasoning process (context, valued ends, consequence, alternative strategies) – form a judgment about what should be done to move toward a resolution of the problem. (approximately 3-5 sentences) 

The essay for part A

A. Cumulative Writing 

Definition of Health and Wellbeing

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as ‘a state of complete physical, mental

and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity’ (WHO, 1948). Health is a person’s state of complete mental, physical, and social wellbeing. It’s the broad aspect of being psychologically, mentally, and socially fit and the interaction of all these factors in a person’s real-life situation. Ideally, they both go beyond the ideal of the absence of illness. Wellbeing will broadly mean person health and positive interaction and participation with the society (Thompson, 2020).

Problem-related to health and wellbeing

From the case of Williams and Sarah, we realize that there is a psychosocial problem. The two couples sharply differ not only in the way the children should be disciplined but also in the manner in which they were raised, which to a better extend has impacted on their social life as grown-ups. While Williams believes corporal punishment is good in correcting a child’s behavior, Sarah cannot start it and a conflict ensues. Their social setting differs and this results in a family that is marred with conflict about how to discipline their daughter.

The rationale to the problem

The problem seems to be rooted from their different background from which they were both raised. Williams was raised in a family that uses slaps and spanks to correct wrong behavior while Sarah was raised in a family which did not value corporal punishment. As a result, they cannot tolerate each other. While Sarah does not have any alternative to corporal punishment as a way of correcting behavior, she cannot tolerate it as she believes children raised with it assume violence and aggressiveness as a way of solving issues but Williams knows a little spanking is good for correcting child’s behavior.

The 2 perspectives

Williams believes in corporal punishment for the correction of a child’s behavior. As many hold, similar beliefs as William-they belief corporal punishment is effective in correcting behavior. Researches imply its effectiveness in changing behavior although it’s widely opposed.

Sarah is strongly opposed to corporal punishment. She argues it’s a form of violence and its impact on the children’s beliefs of violence as the only means of solving problems is deleterious. While many have observed corporal punishment is effective, its impact is short-lived and may not be applicable for future applicability. Hence, the need to adopt alternative disciplining methods (Gershoff, 2018).

Event models

This problem may have been contributed by both psychological and societal occurrences. First, Willian is said to have spent all day long at work and he is tired and a bit upset. Their mental state is not in its fitness. The societal model could have contributed since the two couples were brought up from different families with different beliefs and attributes. While William has been spanked and beaten, Sarah’s family did not treasure corporal punishment and hence the course of family rift and conflict.

B. Systems of Action

Technical action 

Due to the differences seen in the psychosocial setting between Sarah and William, it is crucial for them to embrace the idea of disciplining the child which is agreeable to both of them. According to Latin definition, discipline refers to offering guidance to a child so that he/she learns appropriate behavior. First, in order to solve the problem, the couple may consider discipline the child by taking away privileges. This will communicate to the child that the behavior is not acceptable. Secondly, William and Sarah may consider rewarding good behavior of the child. Thirdly, the couple may consider explaining consequences of inappropriate behavior (Straus & Donnelly, 2017). Sarah and William’s differences emanate from the method of punishment to be used and therefore they can embrace these new perspectives of discipline to meet the immediate goal of punishment.

Communicative action

The idea of taking a certain course of action, in this case punishing a child for wrong doing, is to achieve the intended end, in this case making the child understand the accepted behavior in the society. The contention here is the mode of punishment that can be used for the child. Punishment, whether corporal, spanking or otherwise, may not be superior in achieving behavior change. It may achieve immediate compliance but it is usually short-lived in many cases. It makes children avoid a behavior but not necessarily changing them (Garbarino, 2005). First, in order to solve the differences, Sarah and William may employ inductive reasoning to ensure the child is able to make judgements on what is acceptable. Secondly, they can teach the child self-control so that the child may learn to live within the values given by the parents. Thirdly, Sarah and William may choose to embrace behavioral change as a way of punishing their child. These three actions will solve the differences the couple has on punishment, both in the short-term and in the long-term (Straus & Donnelly, 2017).

Critical action

Parents who punishment their children either through corporal punishment or spanking should be able to look at the results and see whether they have achieved the intended result. For instance, some parents punish their children because of frustration, anger, poor relationships, or abuse. For Sarah and William, it is important for them to look beyond their differences and design a better way of overcoming the differences. Through looking into where the differences are coming from, the two can decide to take critical actions in giving punishment. It is important to ask the right questions when punishing children. The first question would be, “is it the right action to take at the time”? The second critical question is “will it achieve the correctional purpose”? The third critical action question for the couple would be “will the behavior of the child change or will the child employ avoidance instead?” (Garbarino, 2005) These questions will guide parents is solving their perspectives of the differences.

References

Garbarino, J. (2005). Corporal Punishment in Ecological Perspective. Corporal Punishment of Children in Theoretical Perspective, 8–18. doi: 10.12987/yale/9780300085471.003.0002

Gershoff, E. T. (2018). Corporal punishment associated with dating violence. Journal of pediatrics198, 322-325.

Misselbrook D. (2014). W is for wellbeing and the WHO definition of health. The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners64(628), 582. https://doi.org/10.3399/bjgp14X682381

Straus, M. A., & Donnelly, D. A. (2017). Social revolution and Corporal Punishment. Beating the Devil out of Them, 165–192. doi: 10.4324/9781351314688-14

Thompson, V. L. S. (2020). Moving Beyond Mental Illness to Mental Health and Wellbeing. Long-Term Care

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