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Three Parent In Vitro Fertilization Research Paper
Biology 101 – Fall 2014
This writing assignment is designed to provide opportunities for the student to find, evaluate,
select, synthesize, organize, cite, and present information and arguments clearly and effectively
for understanding scientific issues on personal, societal, and global levels.
You are the long-suffering aide to Congresswoman Smith, a well-meaning but excitable
member of the U.S. Congress. She has been too busy working on her re-election campaign to
learn about a topic her constituents are concerned about: three-parent in vitro fertilization
(I.V.F.). She needs to be educated on the topic of three parent I.V.F. Because she knows that
you are a CSUF student, and therefore highly scientifically literate, she has asked you to prepare
a 1000-word (maximum) topic summary paper. Your congresswoman is extremely busy, has
many other commitments, and is not a biologist. Therefore you need to be concise and clear, yet
In your paper, you will include the following (about a paragraph for each point):
• Briefly describe what in vitro fertilization is, how it is used to help with reproductive
issues today. Who generally uses I.V.F. and how successful is it?
• Briefly describe what mitochondria are and how they are inherited from the parents (you
may need to look this information up, but we will discuss some aspects of this in class).
• Briefly describe how mitochondria from a third party are incorporated into an embryo.
Use your knowledge of biotechnology and cells to explain these methods. You need to
include two methods of the incorporation of mitochondria.
• Briefly describe two diseases that this technology can be used to treat or prevent.
• In your final paragraph, address your opinion on the use of three parent I.V.F. Your
response must be supported using scientific data and logic to support your personal
Make sure to read the following article from the New York Times:
“Three Biological Parents and a Baby” By Karen Weintraub, December 16, 2013
You should also review relevant chapters in your textbook, and use other sources to fill in
missing information. You must use and reference at least two additional sources for this
paper besides the New York Times article listed above and your textbook (making the
minimum references for your paper 4). Keep in mind that your paper should be well
supported by evidence and having a good number of quality sources will help in this regard.
It is important that your paper be thoroughly researched and clearly written. You should
define all your terms and be concise (1,000 words maximum). This assignment is designed to
give you the experience of applying your knowledge of biology to a current controversy or topic
of interest. You will use the same sort of method that you will later use as an informed citizen
and consumer when making decisions that involve biology. Other resources
Primary Sources: You will find information in the “primary literature,” which is where the
research was originally published. You can find these articles by using CSUF’s on-line search
engines, or by asking for the help of a CSUF librarian. Examples of the primary literature
include Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy, and Genetics.
Secondary Sources: You may also find relevant articles in recent newspapers, popular
magazines, or popular science journals. These are referred to as “secondary” sources, since they
describe research that was published elsewhere. Examples of these include The New York Times,
The Los Angeles Times, The Guardian, Time, Scientific American, Discover, New Scientist, and
Websites: If you choose to use a website, be aware that most websites are not peer-reviewed, and
often present inaccurate information. Examples of excellent websites include those of the
National Academy of Science, the National Institute of Health, the Centers for Disease Control,
and WebMD. If you are unsure of the appropriateness of a website, check with your instructor.
Alternatively, the CSUF library has an excellent guide to evaluating websites at
http://library.fullerton.edu/ under Guides for Undergraduates.
The structure of your response
• Be sure to cover all five points mentioned above and define all technical terms that you
• Your paper must be between 750 to 1000 words (not including references). Your paper
should be double-spaced with one-inch margins, using 12 point Times New Roman font.
No cover page is required.
• You are not allowed to include any quotes in your paper. All of your writing must be
original. You must paraphrase ideas from the literature, even if you provide an in-text
• Information and ideas that are paraphrased must be accompanied by proper in-text
citations in the body of your paper and a corresponding reference in APA format.
• You need to review your paper for format, spelling, grammar and usage errors before you
submit it, or you will lose points.
• Please also review the grading rubric on Titanium before submitting your paper to make
sure that you have done everything you can to receive a good grade.
Guidelines for Citing References
In-text citations should be in APA format. You can find a summary of APA guidelines for your
reference page at: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
Your bibliography should be formatted using APA (American Psychological Association)
guidelines. You can find a summary of APA guidelines for your reference page at:https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/