I. Multiple choice questions. Please bold or underline the correct answer (1point each=50 points)
1. In October of 2003, a raging wildfire swept through the mountain ecosystems in Southern California, burning everything in its path to the ground and driving away all of the animals. In order for the mountain ecosystem to establish itself, which member of the food web has to return first?
2. Suppose you conduct an experiment which simulates glacial recession over time. What is the dependent variable in this experiment?
- Glacial mass
- The season
3. How many dependent variables can be tested during any single experiment?
4. The effectiveness of a medication containing growth hormones is tested on a group of young male rabbits 3 weeks of age. The best control group would be:
- Any group of rabbits
- A group of male rabbits, three weeks old, not given the medication
- A group of female rabbits, three weeks old, not given the medication
- A mixed group of male/female rabbits, three weeks old, not given the medication
- No control is required; just measure whether the rabbits grew
5. When writing a lab report or a research paper, you need to show what the difference is between the “Results” section and the ”Discussion” section. Which of the following is correct?
- The Discussion analyzes data, whereas the Results analyzes the procedure.
- The Discussion analyzes data, whereas the Results displays data.
- The Discussion displays data, whereas the Results analyzes the Discussion.
- The Discussion displays the procedure, whereas the Results analyzes the data.
6. What characteristic of carbon makes it a good backbone for creating diverse and durable molecules?
- Carbon is a large atom
- Carbon forms four covalent bonds
- Carbon forms hydrogen bonds
- All of the above
7. Which of the following reactions or pathways is catabolic?
- Converting glucose to carbon dioxide and water (cellular respiration)
- Making starch from many glucose monomers
- Photosynthesis, which builds glucose from carbon dioxide using energy from light
- Making ATP from ADP and phosphate
8. One human disease is caused by a change in the DNA from GAA to GUA. This change is an example of:
- A meiosis error
- A mitosis error
- A mutation
9. What subatomic particles are found in the nucleus?
- Protons and neutrons
- Protons and electrons
10. Which of the following describes H20, NaCl, CO2, and HCl?
- All are acids
- All are gases
- All are salts
- All are inorganic molecules
11. Which of the following correctly describes a buffer?
- A buffer converts an alkaline solution to neutral
- A buffer converts an acid solution to neutral.
- A buffer converts alkaline solutions to acid solutions.
- A buffer converts strong bases or acids to weak bases or acids.
12. Which term does not belong in this list?
- Hydrogen ion donor
- pH 8
- Lactic acid
13. The process in which molecules spread randomly from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration is:
14. Organize the following solutions from most concentrated to least concentrated: hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic.
15. The rate of diffusion depends on which of the following?
- The medium
- The size of the molecule
- The polarity
- All of the above
- A. and C. only
16. All of the following are examples of elements except
17. What would happen to a eukaryotic cell, if too much osmotic pressure develops within a cell?
- The cell would remain the same size, but the internal organelles would become dehydrated
- The cell would decrease in size, and could collapse.
- The cell would increase in size, and could lyse.
- Nothing, osmotic pressure does not impact the cell.