Biology

NAME: _____________________________ PERIOD ____________

NEUROLOGICAL or PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDER PROJECT

NEUROLOGICAL DISORDER PROJECT TOPIC: ___________________________________ TEACHER APPROVAL ________ DUE DATE: ___March 26__

PURPOSE: The purpose of this assignment is to have you look at the human body from a different angle. It is almost impossible to open the newspaper or

watch the news on TV without hearing about human disorders and diseases, new

cures, and the state of our health care system. The body is susceptible to

malfunction and diseases and Americans are worried about how they are going to

pay the costs of their health care if they become sick. In this project, we will focus

on neurological, neuromuscular, and psychological disorders as a way to learn

more about the way the body works stemming from the nervous system.

PROCEDURE:

1) Choose a disorder or serious physical problem to focus on for your project. Your project will have more meaning for you if you choose a disease that affects someone in your family or “extended” family such as aunts, uncles, cousins, or a friend etc. Careful choice of a disease will make this project more interesting for you. (Note that no two students can do the same project.)

2) Find out all you can about the disorder/disease you chose for your project. The following are resources you should consult about the disease: Books, the Internet, magazines or journals, professionals in the health field, special interest organizations, and last but not least persons who are affected by the disease you have chosen.

MAKE SURE YOUR REPORT INCLUDES THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION:

a) UNDERSTANDING THE DISEASE/DISORDER i) Background and/or history

(1) Who discovered (2) How was it named (3) Associated disorders- (similar to the disease) (4) Type of Disorder- if it is inherited include Genetics of the disorder

ii) Environmental Effects (1) Transmission or spreading (2) Behavioral risk factors (3) Seasonal or Climate

iii) Demographics (1) The age one normally gets this disease (2) Statistics of numbers with disease, and in what countries

b) HOW THE DISEASE AFFECTS THE BODY i) Biochemical changes that cause the disease ii) How the disease affects normal cellular function Pathology

(1) Structural and Functional Abnormalities (2) Description of organ system(s) involved

iii) How a person’s daily life is affected by the disease iv) The symptoms of the disease

c) TREATMENTS FOR THE DISEASE i) Tests a health care provider would run to help diagnose the disease ii) Medications to treat the disorder and how they work iii) Current research to find a cure or better treatment for the disease; include a copy of that article and

a summary of what you understood about it. iv) Information on the cost of having the disease, treatment, medications, hospitalization, etc.

Schizophrenia

Alex Shah

d) CONCLUSION PARAGRAPH. i) Write about why you chose this disease? ii) What was the most interesting fact that you learned from doing the project? iii) What was the most important source of information that you used to write your report? iv) What questions would you still like answered about this disease? v) What do you feel that everyone should learn from your project?

3) BIBLIOGRAPHY Include at the end of your report a bibliography of sources to produce your presentation. (MLA or APA format with the exact URL address) There is a requirement of at least 5 reliable sources with at least 2 of the 5 coming from a journal article (Google PNAS)

4) PRESENTATION Your presentation will be held to 5 minutes maximum! Please know and internalize the important information….don’t read off the screen or computer! Your research project is to design a presentation and load it to Google Classroom.

a) The presentation should include at least one graphic per slide i) Points will be given for neatness and clarity ii) Make sure the image serves a purpose to your topic in the slide.

b) Your paper will be submitted to an electronic website to check for originality. c) Use note cards only to assist in the organization of your project (it is not necessary)

i) Points will be taken off for reading directly from the note cards. d) Students should be prepared to answer a minimum of 2 questions that the teacher or students have

about the disorder. e) PowerPoints must be in your Google Classroom.

Grade Breakdown: 50 points possible for the paper 15 points possible for the PPT 35 points possible for the presentation and Q&A session

Deadline – Neurological Disorder- Approved by the teacher before Feb. 15 (Neurological disorder must be first

approved by the teacher before starting the research). – Research Paper March 26 – PowerPoint or other approved presentation program- March 26 – Oral presentation starts- March 26 (volunteers first then random)

Evaluation- Neurological or Psychological Condition

– Not clearly defined

1- Listed a part of what is required

2- Somewhat defined

3- Listed most of what is required

4- Listed everything of what is required and clearly defined.

5- Listed all that is required and clearly defined in an organized/cohesive manner

Research Report (50 points)

Understanding the disorder (x 2)

0 1 2 3 4 5

How the disorder affects the body (x 2)

0 1 2 3 4 5

Treatment of the disorder (x 2)

0 1 2 3 4 5

Conclusion (x 2)

0 1 2 3 4 5

Bibliography (x 2)

0 1 2 3 4 5

Visual Presentation (15 points- x 3)

0 1 2 3 4 5

Oral Presentation (35 points)

Subject Knowledge (x 3)

0 1 2 3 4 5

Enthusiasm

0 1 2 3 4 5

Response to Questions

0 1 2 3 4 5

Eye Contact and Body Language

0 1 2 3 4 5

Elocution

0 1 2 3 4 5

Final Grade: __________

Comments:

3/24/18, 10*44 AMSchizophrenia in adults: Epidemiology and pathogenesis – UpToDate

Page 1 of 18https://www.uptodate.com/contents/schizophrenia-in-adults-epidemiol…search_result&selectedTitle=3~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=3

Official reprint from UpToDate www.uptodate.com ©2018 UpToDate, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Schizophrenia in adults: Epidemiology and pathogenesis

Authors: Bernard A Fischer, MD, Robert W Buchanan, MD Section Editor: Stephen Marder, MD Deputy Editor: Richard Hermann, MD

All topics are updated as new evidence becomes available and our peer review process is complete. Literature review current through: Feb 2018. | This topic last updated: Jan 26, 2018.

INTRODUCTION — Schizophrenia is among the most disabling and economically catastrophic medical disorders, ranked by the World Health Organization as one of the top ten illnesses contributing to the global burden of disease [1].

Characteristics of schizophrenia typically include positive symptoms, such as hallucinations or delusions; disorganized speech; negative symptoms, such as a flat affect or poverty of speech; and impairments in cognition, including attention, memory, and executive functions. The illness is commonly associated with impairments in social and occupational functioning [2]. Antipsychotic medications are the first-line treatment for schizophrenia. Evidence-based psychosocial interventions in conjunction with pharmacotherapy can help patients achieve recovery.

This topic discusses the epidemiology and pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Clinical manifestations, assessment, diagnosis, and course of schizophrenia are discussed separately. Anxiety and depression in schizophrenia are discussed separately. Psychosocial and pharmacologic treatments for schizophrenia are discussed separately, including long-acting antipsychotics, clozapine, and management of antipsychotic side effects. Evaluation and management of treatment resistant schizophrenia are also reviewed separately. (See “Schizophrenia in adults: Clinical manifestations, course, assessment, and diagnosis” and “Pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia: Acute and maintenance phase treatment” and “Pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia: Side effect management” and “Pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia: Long-acting injectable antipsychotic drugs” and “Psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia” and “Depression in schizophrenia” and “Anxiety in schizophrenia” and “Evaluation and management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia”.)

EPIDEMIOLOGY — Schizophrenia occurs throughout the world. The prevalence of schizophrenia (ie, the number of cases in a population at any one time point) approaches 1 percent internationally. The incidence (the number of new cases annually) is about 1.5 per 10,000 people [3]. Age of onset is typically during adolescence; childhood and late-life onset (over 45 years) are rare. Slightly more men are diagnosed with schizophrenia than women (on the order of 1.4:1) [4], and women tend to be diagnosed later in life than men. Modal age of onset is between 18 and 25 for men and between 25 and 35 for women, with a second peak occurring around menopause [5]. There is also some indication that the prognosis is worse in men [6,7].

®

3/24/18, 10*44 AMSchizophrenia in adults: Epidemiology and pathogenesis – UpToDate

Page 2 of 18https://www.uptodate.com/contents/schizophrenia-in-adults-epidemiol…earch_result&selectedTitle=3~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=3

Co-occurring conditions — People with schizophrenia have higher rates of several psychiatric disorders than people without schizophrenia, including:

People with schizophrenia are also at greater risk for co-occurring conditions, such as metabolic and neurological problems. (See “Schizophrenia in adults: Clinical manifestations, course, assessment, and diagnosis”, section on ‘Associated physical manifestations’.)

The rate of suicide among people with schizophrenia is much higher than in the general population. Approximately 5 percent of people with schizophrenia commit suicide over their lifetime [8]. About 10 percent of all completed suicides are among people with schizophrenia [9,10].

Risk factors — A number of epidemiologic risk factors have been associated with the development of schizophrenia, including:

Environmental risk factors for schizophrenia are discussed below. (See ‘Environmental risk factors’ below.)

Cost — The cost of schizophrenia is staggering. The overall cost of schizophrenia in the United States in 2002 was estimated at about $63 billion [18]. This figure includes direct healthcare costs and indirect costs associated with loss of productivity. A study comparing the cost of schizophrenia in India in 2001 with the cost in the same catchment area in 2011 found that the cost had doubled in those 10 years, mainly related to increases in indirect costs [19]. A study examining United States insurance claims found that the annual health-related expenses of someone with chronic schizophrenia averaged more than $15,000 [20]. The cost of schizophrenia treatment from 2004 to 2009 to Medicare in the United States increased from $9.4 billion to $11.5 billion [21].

Deficit schizophrenia — Deficit schizophrenia, characterized by primary, enduring negative symptoms, seems to be a specific disease process within the larger syndrome of schizophrenia. Approximately 15 to 20 percent of the total schizophrenia population has the deficit form of schizophrenia [22-25]. They are more likely to be male and more likely to have relatives with schizophrenia than people with nondeficit schizophrenia [26-30]. As

Depressive disorders (see “Depression in schizophrenia”)●

Anxiety disorders: social anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (see “Anxiety in schizophrenia”)

Alcohol and other substance use disorders (see “Co-occurring schizophrenia and substance use disorder: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, course, assessment and diagnosis”)

Living in an urban area [11,12]●

Immigration [13,14]●

Obstetrical complications [15]●

Late winter-early spring birth – Perhaps reflecting exposure to influenza virus during neural development●

Advanced paternal age at conception [16] – May be associated with an increased risk of de novo mutations [17]

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